These initial neuroimaging studies of PIT have focused on the influence of appetitively conditioned stimuli on instrumental responses maintained by positive reinforcement, and highlight the involvement of the striatum. In the current Trametinib purchase study, we sought to understand the neural correlates of PIT in an aversive Pavlovian learning situation when instrumental responding was maintained through negative reinforcement. Participants exhibited specific PIT, wherein selective
increases in instrumental responding to conditioned stimuli occurred when the stimulus signaled a specific aversive outcome whose omission negatively reinforced the instrumental response. Additionally, a general PIT effect was observed such that when a stimulus was associated with a different aversive outcome than was used to negatively reinforce instrumental behavior, the presence of that stimulus caused a non-selective increase in overall instrumental responding. Both specific and general PIT behavioral effects correlated with increased activation in corticostriatal circuitry, particularly in the striatum, a region involved in cognitive and motivational processes. These results suggest that avoidance-based PIT utilizes a similar Pirfenidone manufacturer neural mechanism to that seen with PIT in an appetitive context, which has implications
for understanding mechanisms of drug-seeking behavior during addiction and relapse. “
“This study examined changes in dendritic morphology and spine density in multiple brain regions [Zilles' areas: (i) the Cg3 region of the anterior cingulate cortex or the medial prefrontal cortex, layer III (Cg3); (ii) the dorsal agranular insular cortex, layer III (AID); (iii) the PAR I region of the parietal cortex, layer III (Par1) and (iv) the nucleus accumbens (NAc)]of Long–Evans Baf-A1 mouse rats following exposure to nicotine prenatally, in late adolescence, or both prenatally and in adolescence. Prenatal nicotine exposure induced enduring changes in neuroanatomical organisation that varied
between male and female offspring, with males exhibiting increased dendritic complexity of neurons in AID and NAc whereas females experienced increased dendritic complexity in Par1 but decreased dendritic complexity of neurons in NAc. Similarly, nicotine given in late adolescence dramatically reorganised neural circuitry of both male and female offspring, with males exhibiting decreased dendritic complexity of neurons in Par1 and Cg3 but increased dendritic complexity in AID, and females exhibiting decreased dendritic complexity in Cg3 and NAc but increased complexity in AID. Exposure to nicotine both prenatally and in adolescence produced few neuroanatomical parameters that demonstrated a prenatal experience × adolescent drug administration interaction. Females showed additive effects in Par1, Cg3 and NAc whereas males demonstrated additive effects only in AID.