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“A

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“A PD-1/PD-L1 inhibition decoction of the leaves and stems

of Desmodium adscendens (Fabaceae), a herb occurring in Africa and South America, is used in traditional medicine. Previous phytochemical research revealed that flavonoids, soyasaponins, beta-phenylethylamines, and an indol-3-alkylamine were present. Our investigations have led to the identification of D-pinitol, a carbohydrate with antihyperglycemic, hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects, as a potentially active compound. In order to prepare a quantified extract to be used in in vivo experiments, an analytical method was developed and validated.

A gas chromatographic method was developed. Two different derivatization methods, i.e. acetylation and trimethylsilylation, were AZD6244 research buy evaluated. Trimethylsilylation yielded repeatable results and was selected. Five different sugar alcohols were evaluated in order to find a suitable internal standard. Xylitol was chosen since it did not co-elute and its structure closely resembled D-pinitol. Sonication and reflux extraction were investigated in order to obtain a quantitative extraction. This was achieved through reflux extraction during 0.5 h.

The

method was validated according to the ICH guidelines. The calibration model appeared to be linear, ranging from 5.13 mu L/mL to 25.65 mu L’/mL. The method was precise with an inter-day precision lower than 1.3%. The accuracy ranged from 103.38% to 105.84%. The validated method was used for quantification of D-pinitol in lyophilized decoctions from D. adscendens administered in in vivo experiments. Typically, a D-pinitol level about 5% was measured. Additionally, different food supplements available on the market were screened. The amount D-pinitol found in these supplements

ranged from 1.8 mg/capsule to 30 mg/capsule and was 2.0 mg/mL solution. (C) 2013 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: To date, no studies have reported on the relationship between the emotional distress of patients undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stern cell transplantation (HSCT) and the distress RepSox of their nurses.

Methods: 113 patients rated their distress by means of a daily questionnaire during their inpatient hospitalisation for HSCT. At the same time, nurses were asked to assess their distress caused by the additional care needs and increased emotional demands placed on them by the patients. Surveys covered a treatment period from day -5 to day +29 post-HSCT.

Results: The correlation between the distress level of the patients and that of the nurses was r = 0.40 (p < 0.001). The partial coefficient of this correlation was r = 0.43 (p < 0.001) when an indicator of the physical state of the patients, as assessed by their treating physicians, was controlled.

Conclusions: Distress, as experienced by patients and nurses, is positively correlated.

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