(b) Focusing-flow nozzle Figure 5 Cross-sectional


(b) Focusing-flow nozzle. Figure 5 Cross-sectional

profiles of spots for stand-off distances from 0.4 to 1.8 mm. (a) Straight-flow nozzle. (b) Focusing-flow nozzle. Figure 6 Relationship between the stand-off distance, removal volume, and spot size. Machining time is 1 min. (a) Straight-flow nozzle. (b) Focusing-flow nozzle. Ulixertinib solubility dmso Results and discussion When the focusing-flow nozzle is employed, the spot size decreases with increasing stand-off distance from 0.4 to 0.8 mm. The minimum spot size is 1.3 mm at a stand-off distance of 0.8 mm, and as the stand-off distance increases, the spot size gradually increases. The results indicate that the CDK inhibitor spot size and removal rate can be controlled by simply adjusting the stand-off distance without changing the nozzle. On the other hand, when the straight-flow nozzle is used, the spot remains of the same size regardless of the stand-off distance. When a change in machining conditions is necessary, a nozzle with a different size must be installed [12]. Next, to evaluate the roughness of the EEM-processed surface, raster scanning was carried out on a quartz surface over a square area of side length of 5 mm before and after processing using the focusing-flow nozzle, as shown in Figure 7. The RMS values before and after processing are almost the same; thus, whereas the nozzle-type EEM is mainly employed for figure correction [4], the focusing-flow nozzle can also be used for the

figure correction of advanced optical devices. Figure 7 Roughness of the surface before and after EEM processing

Anidulafungin (LY303366) YH25448 cost using a focusing-flow nozzle. (a) Before processing. (b) After processing. Finally, note that the stationary spot profiles in Figure 4a,b are in good agreement with the velocity distributions in Figure 2c,d, respectively. Thus, the shape of the stationary spot profiles can be predicted, which indicates that fluid simulators can be used for the further development of EEM nozzles suitable for figuring of various types of mirror. Conclusions In this study, we proposed and experimentally tested the control of the shape of a stationary spot profile by realizing a focusing-flow state between the nozzle outlet and the workpiece surface in EEM. The simulation results indicate that the focusing-flow nozzle sharpens the distribution of the velocity on the workpiece surface. The results of the machining experiments verified those of the simulation. The obtained stationary spot conditions will be useful for surface processing with a spatial resolution higher than 1.3 mm. In this study, the shape of the channel affected the machining parameters. The basic idea of controlling the shape of stationary spot profiles through not only the nozzle aperture size but also the channel structure can be widely applied to various EEM optical fabrication processes, particularly for advanced optics with a complicated shape. Authors’ information YT is a graduate student, and HM is an associate professor at the University of Tokyo in Japan.

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