In a review of the literature concerning the efficacy of commercially available CE, Coombes and Hamilton  noted that studies supporting the use of CE for improved performance during prolonged endurance exercise frequently included participants exercising after a 12-h fast. Similar conditions were found for the majority of the ~ 1–h duration studies click here cited above in which positive results were found for carbohydrate beverages [2, 4–9, 11–15, 17]. Of the 17 studies reviewed in this current paper, five [3, 6, 10, 16, 18] reported a benefit of CE use for subjects who were not fasted prior to exercise, and 1 of those investigations only included 5 moderately trained participants
. Cyclists  and runners  who were fed before exercise failed to
show improved performance during 1-h time trials when consuming CE as compared to a sweetened placebo during exercise. Ingesting carbohydrate-rich gels with water before and during runs lasting 75 min also has also not proven effective in improving performance of fed runners . Similarly, the ergogenic effect of a carbohydrate mouth rinse reported in the studies mentioned above has not been confirmed in fed runners  or cyclists . Conflicting results and few investigations in which a pre-exercise meal was consumed make it difficult to extrapolate results to individuals who are fed prior to exercise. Given the preceding discussion, it remains unknown whether CE improves performance in recreational eFT508 ic50 exercise bouts lasting ~ 1 h. Non-caloric electrolyte beverages (NCE), similar to the placebos prepared and used in the investigations cited above, may be an appealing alternative to water for exercisers concerned with caloric intake but who prefer flavored beverages over water, potentially increasing fluid intake during and after exercise . However, it is unclear whether a NCE is as efficacious as a CE in improving or maintaining performance in recreational exercise bouts lasting ~ 1 h. Therefore, the purpose Cediranib (AZD2171) of this study was to determine if recreational exercisers, while in a post-prandial
state, would; a) exhibit improved performance in exercise lasting ~ 1 h in duration, b) perceive exercise as less difficult, or c) report lower levels of fatigue, when consuming a CE during exercise compared to a NCE or water (W). It was hypothesized that there would be no differences in performance, mood, or rate of perceived exertion among beverages. Methods Participants Men (n = 23) and women (n = 13) ages 19–30 who reported participating in a minimum of 150 but no more than 450 min of aerobic exercise per week for the previous 3 months volunteered to participate in this study. Thirteen of the thirty-six participants reported that they engaged in indoor or outdoor Niraparib clinical trial cycling (2.3 ± 1.4 times per week).