978-38 253, P < 01) The exogenous gene expression by polymera

978-38.253, P <.01). The exogenous gene expression by polymerase chain reaction in adenovirus vector-infected cardiac myocytes was significantly higher that) that in pDC316-tk/lipoplex-transducted ones (semiquantitative analysis, 3.11 +/- 0.14 versus 1.60

+/- 0.05, P <.01). Immunocytochemistry showed that the transferred cardiac myocytes successfully expressed the target protein, and the positive rates were 81.70 +/- 0.40% in Ad5-tk and 22.06 +/- 0.32% in liposome (P <.01).

Conclusions: Both adenovirus and liposome could transfer reporter gene into cardiac myocytes successfully, and the expressed exogenous protein could form functional enzymes efficiently. However, the adenovirus vector acted more efficiently PD0325901 purchase than did liposome, with a higher uptake rate of the reporter probe. Thus, adenovirus is competent for gene transfer in cardiac reporter gene imaging. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: Conflicting data exist regarding the

effect of chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) on carotid endarterectomy (CEA) outcomes. A large database was used to analyze the effect of CRI, defined by glomerular filtration rate (GFR), as an independent risk factor of CEA.

Methods: Prospectively collected data regarding CEAs performed at 123 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers as part of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program were retrospectively analyzed. selleck compound Renal function was used to divide patients into three CRI groups: normal or mild (control; GFR >= 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)), moderate (GFR 30 to 59), and severe (GFR <30). Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to characterize risk factors and their associations with 30-day morbidity and mortality.

Results: Between Jan 1, 1996, and Dec 31, 2003, 22,080 patients underwent CEA. Patients missing creatinine levels, already dialysis-dependent, or in acute renal failure just before

surgery were excluded. This left 20,899 available for analysis, of which 13,965 had a GFR of >= 60, 6,423 had a GFR of 30 to 59, and 511 had a GFR of <30. The incidence of neurologic complications did not Sclareol differ significantly (control, 1.7%; moderate CRI, 1.9%; severe CRI, 2.7%). The moderate CRI group experienced significantly more cardiac events (1.7% vs 0.9% for controls, P < .001). This remained predictive in the multivariate model even adjusting for all other risk factors (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.3; P = .009). The moderate CRI group also had higher rates of pulmonary complications (2.1% vs 1.3% control; P < .001; AOR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.7; P = .031) but not 30-day mortality (P = .269). Those with severe CRI had a much higher mortality (3.1% vs 1.0% control, P < .001), which remained significant in the multivariate model (AOF, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.6-4.8; P < .001).

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