The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of genetic a

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of genetic abnormalities on short-term outcomes following neonatal cardiac surgery.\n\nMethods. Retrospective review of all neonates (n = 609) undergoing cardiac surgery from January 2003 to December 2006. Genetic abnormalities were identified in 93 neonates (15%). Genetic

abnormalities TH-302 datasheet identified were 22q11.2 deletion (23), chromosomal abnormalities including various monosomies, trisomies, deletions, duplications, and inversions (17), dysmorphic undefined syndrome without recognized chromosomal abnormality (27), Down syndrome (9), laterality sequences (9), recognixed syndromes and genetic etiology including Mendelian (i.e. Alagille, CHARGE) (8).\n\nResults. Neonates with genetic abnormalities had lower birth weights and were older at time of surgery. There was no difference in operative variables, duration of mechanical ventilation or β-Nicotinamide in vitro ICU length of stay between the two groups. There was an increase in total hospital length of stay and postoperative complications in the neonates with genetic abnormalities. Importantly, in hospital mortality was not different.\n\nConclusion. Neonates with genetic abnormalities have a higher risk of postoperative complications and a longer hospital length of stay. However, there is no increase in hospital mortality. This information may aid in patient management decisions and parental

counseling. Longer-term studies are needed for understanding the total impact of genetic abnormalities on neonates with GDC-0994 concentration congenital heart disease.”
“[Purpose] This study examined the influence of aging on balance function through the reaction time of the ankle joint muscles. [Methods] Forty-nine subjects were classified into 3 age groups: aged 20 to 30 (group Y, 19 subjects); aged 60 to 74 (YO, 12); and over 75 (OO, 18). Functional reach (FR), single-leg standing with eyes closed (SLS), and plantar flexor strength, were measured. For the electromyogram

responses, reaction time (RT), premotor time (PMT), motor time (MT) and anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) were evaluated. [Results] Significant differences in FR and SLS were observed between Y and YO, and OO. In the standing position, significant differences in PMT were observed between Y and OO, and in MT among all age groups. For the APAs, significant differences were observed between Y and OO, and in the strength between Y and YO, and OO. Balance items appeared to correlate with the reaction time in the standing position. [Conclusion] The results of this study verify that the balance function declines with age. We demonstrated that a delay in central processing and slower muscle contractions are key factors in the age-related decline of the balance function.”
“Long-lasting changes in neuronal excitability require activity-dependent gene expression and therefore the transduction of synaptic signals to the nucleus.

METHODS: Serum and urine samples were collected from 24 patie

\n\nMETHODS: Serum and urine samples were collected from 24 patients buy JQ1 with ulcerative colitis (UC), 19 patients with the Crohn’s disease (CD) and 17 healthy controls. The activity of UC was assessed with the Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index, while the activity of CD was determined using the Harvey-Bradshaw Index. The analysis of serum and urine samples was performed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. All spectra were

exported to Matlab for preprocessing which resulted in two data matrixes for serum and urine. Prior to the chemometric analysis, both data sets were unit variance scaled. The differences in metabolite fingerprints were assessed using partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Receiver operating characteristic IWR-1-endo molecular weight curves and area under curves were used to evaluate the quality and prediction performance of the obtained PLS-DA models. Metabolites responsible for separation in models were tested using STATISTICA 10 with the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test and the Student’s t test (a = 0.05).\n\nRESULTS: The comparison between the group of patients with active IBD and the group with IBD in remission provided good PLS-DA models (P value 0.002 for serum and 0.003 for urine). The metabolites that allowed

to distinguish these groups were: N-acetylated compounds and phenylalanine (up-regulated in serum), low-density lipoproteins and very low-density lipoproteins (decreased in serum) as well as glycine (increased in urine) and acetoacetate (decreased in urine). The significant differences in metabolomic

profiles were also found between the group of patients with Staurosporine mouse active IBD and healthy control subjects providing the PLS-DA models with a very good separation (P value < 0.001 for serum and 0.003 for urine). The metabolites that were found to be the strongest biomarkers included in this case: leucine, isoleucine, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, N-acetylated compounds, acetoacetate, glycine, phenylalanine and lactate (increased in serum), creatine, dimethyl sulfone, histidine, choline and its derivatives (decreased in serum), as well as citrate, hippurate, trigonelline, taurine, succinate and 2-hydroxyisobutyrate (decreased in urine). No clear separation in PLS-DA models was found between CD and UC patients based on the analysis of serum and urine samples, although one metabolite (formate) in univariate statistical analysis was significantly lower in serum of patients with active CD, and two metabolites (alanine and N-acetylated compounds) were significantly higher in serum of patients with CD when comparing jointly patients in the remission and active phase of the diseases. Contrary to the results obtained from the serum samples, the analysis of urine samples allowed to distinguish patients with IBD in remission from healthy control subjects.

Discontinuous sucrose gradient centrifugation was used to prepare

Discontinuous sucrose gradient centrifugation was used to prepare

lipid rafts at different time-points (1, 7, and 14 days) after surgery. Activation of FYN, cytokine expression (IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha), and T-cell activation (CD3 and IL-15) were followed by in vitro kinase assays, enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA), Western blotting, and immunoprecipitation. Sciatic nerve injury resulted in increased SRC kinase activity in gastrocnemius lipid rafts. Production of both IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha was increased, peaking after 1 day, followed after 7 and 14 days by upregulation of IL-15 and CD3 expression and the development this website of caveolin-3 and CD3 complexes. The integrity of lipid rafts and the upregulation of SRC kinase activity, cytokine expression, and T-cell activation and cross-talk with muscle cells following denervation were abolished in Fyn(-/-)

mice. The integrity of FYN-dependent lipid rafts is required for local immune system activation within denervated muscle, and lipid rafts are implicated in orchestrating muscle-immune-cell cross-talk. These results are likely to provide new insights into the therapy of neuromuscular injury. Muscle R406 cost Nerve 42: 70-77, 2010″
“Research on emotional experience has indicated that subjects with schizophrenia experience less positive, and more negative emotional experience than non-psychiatric subjects in natural settings. Differences in the experience of emotion may result from differences in experiences such that everyday activities

may evoke emotions. The purpose of this study was to identify if everyday experience of competence and autonomy were related to positive and negative emotion. Adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were recruited from day treatment programs (N=45). Data were collected using experience-sampling methods. A number of subjects failed to meet data adequacy (N=13) but did not differ from retained subjects (N=32) in symptoms or cognition. Positive and negative emotion models were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling Everyday activities were characterized by those reported as easily accomplished and requiring at most moderate talents. Positive emotional experiences were stronger than negative emotional experiences. JNK-IN-8 The majority of variance in positive and negative emotion existed between persons. Negative symptoms were significantly related to positive emotion, but not negative emotion. The perception that motivation for activity was external to subjects (e.g. wished they were doing something else) was related to decreased positive emotion and enhanced negative emotion. Activities that required more exertion for activities was related to enhanced positive emotion, whereas activities that subjects reported they wanted to do was associated with reduced negative emotion.

Moreover, immunoreactivity of fragments of beta(2)-microglobulin,

Moreover, immunoreactivity of fragments of beta(2)-microglobulin,

surprisingly, was also not affected by the cut-off of dialysis membranes.\n\nConclusions Dinaciclib clinical trial and clinical relevance: Thus, simply increasing the pore size of a hemodialysis membrane may not have any long-term effect on serum composition.”
“OBJECTIVES: The aim of this investigation was to study the epidemiology of the isolated soft tissue cleft lip (ICL) population and to evaluate the dental anomalies associated with permanent dentition.\n\nMETHODS: The study included 19 children aged 9-13 years presenting ICL selected from 657 cleft lip-affected patients treated during the last 10 years in two craniofacial centers. Only 17 patients could be included for dental anomaly evaluation: Hyperdontia, Hypodontia, Gemination, Talon tooth, Microdontia, and Macrodontia. These were compared with cleft lip and palate (CLP) and cleft lip and alveolus (CLA)-affected populations and with normal populations.\n\nRESULTS: The prevalence of ICL was 2.8%. All types of tooth abnormalities were found to be higher and mainly significant for the cleft side of ICL compared with the normal population. On the side opposite the cleft, the prevalence of dental anomalies reduced toward the normal individuals and was not significantly different. The significant differences

found between CLP, CLA, and ICL-affected populations were mostly depicted by lateral incisors VS-6063 molecular weight and second pre-molar hypodontia.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Isolated cleft lip is a rare phenomenon

among the spectrum of the cleft-affected population. selleck chemicals The prevalence of the dental anomalies in ICL maintains the proportional trend according to clefting severity. Oral Diseases (2011) 17, 221-231″
“Sepsis is a global health problem. Despite recent advances in understanding its pathophysiology and clinical trials testing potential new therapies, mortality remains unacceptably high. In fact, sepsis is the leading cause of death in non-coronary intensive care units around the world. However, during the past decade, some studies have highlighted that early recognition of sepsis and an appropriate initial approach are fundamental determinants of prognosis. A systematic approach to the harmful triad of sepsis-related hypotension, tissue hypoperfusion and organ dysfunction, with low-cost, easy to implement, and effective interventions, can significantly improve the chances of survival. In this article, we will update the evidence supporting the initial resuscitation bundle for patients with severe sepsis, and discuss the physiological basis for perfusion monitoring during septic shock resuscitation.”
“The management of joint replacement in lysosomal storage diseases has not been well reported. We present three patients with progressive degenerative changes of the hips who required bilateral total hip replacement in early childhood.

Excellent long-term charge storage stability at 120 degrees C is

Excellent long-term charge storage stability at 120 degrees C is observed. From the initial surface charge 94% remains after 24 h. This polyimide even tolerates short-term exposure of 30 s at 300 degrees C with almost no loss of performance. These findings demonstrate that this particular polyimide is suitable GANT61 datasheet for device applications at elevated temperatures during fabrication and use.”
“Hopfield neural networks (HNNs) have proven useful in solving optimization problems that require fast response times. However, the original analog model has an extremely high implementation complexity, making

discrete implementations more suitable. Previous work has studied the convergence of discrete-time and quantized-neuron models but has limited the analysis to either two-state neurons or serial operation mode. Nevertheless, two-state neurons have poor performance, and serial operation modes lose fast convergence, which is characteristic of analog HNNs. This letter is the first in the field analyzing the convergence and stability of quantized Hopfield networks (QHNs)-with more than two states-operating in fully parallel MAPK inhibitor mode. Moreover, this letter presents some further analysis on the energy minimization of this type of network. The main conclusion drawn is that QHNs operating in fully parallel mode always converge to a stable state or a cycle of length two and any stable state is a local minimum of the

“Progesterone is indispensable in creating a suitable endometrial environment for implantation, and also for the maintenance of pregnancy. Successful pregnancy depends on an appropriate maternal immune response to the fetus. Along with its endocrine effects, progesterone also acts as an “immunosteroid”, by contributing to the establishment of a pregnancy protective immune milieu. Progesterone plays

a role in uterine homing of NK cells and upregulates HLA-G gene expression, the ligand for NK inhibitory and activating receptors. At high concentrations, progesterone is a potent inducer of Th2-type cytokines as well as of LIF and M-CSF production by T cells. A protein called progesterone-induced click here blocking factor (PIBF), by inducing a Th2-dominant cytokine production mediates the immunological effects of progesterone. PIBF binds to a novel type of the IL-4 receptor and signals via the Jak/STAT pathway, to induce a number of genes, that not only affect the immune response, but might also play a role in trophoblast invasiveness. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between hepatic triacylglycerol content (TAG) and hepatic size and shape assessed by transcutaneous ultrasonography in dairy cows. In a second part, the usefulness of ultrasonographic measurements pertaining to the size and shape of the liver for the diagnosis of fatty liver was evaluated.

RIN-m5f beta cells were exposed to a combination of tumor necrosi

RIN-m5f beta cells were exposed to a combination of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and interferon-gamma, with or without myricetin pretreatment for 48 h. The cell viability, basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and Wnt-signaling

proteins were evaluated with methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay, radio immunoassay and Western blotting, respectively. The 48 h multiple-cytokine treatment decreased cell viability and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, while increasing basal insulin secretion. Western blot analysis showed that Wnt-signaling proteins were decreased in cytokine-treated RIN-m5f cells. However, myricetin pretreatment protected against cytokine-induced cell death. In addition, myricetin (20 mu mol/L) obviously decreased basal insulin secretion and increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in cytokine-treated RIN-m5f cells. Western blot analysis showed that Wnt-signaling proteins selleck compound were increased after myricetin pretreatment.

Therefore, myricetin might attenuate cell dysfunction in cytokine-induced RIN-m5F cells via the Wnt signal pathway, and the Wnt signal pathway might be used as a new target for protecting pancreatic beta cells against cytokine-induced cell dysfunction and death.”
“Background: We here report the first study of antigen and phenotype frequencies of various blood group systems by gel technology in north Indian blood donors.\n\nStudy design and methods: Selleckchem MAPK inhibitor A total of 1240 regular repeat voluntary north Indian blood donors PD0325901 of 0 blood group were included for red cell antigen typing of Rh (D, C, E, c, e) and Kell (K) blood group systems. Out of these, 317 donors were randomly selected for typing of other blood group antigens: Jk(a), Jk(b), k, Kp(a), Kp(b), Fy(a), Fy(b), M, N, S. s, Le(a), Le(b),P(1), Lu(a), Lu(b) and Xg(a). Calculations of antigen

and phenotypes frequencies were expressed as percentages and for allele frequencies under the standard assumption of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.\n\nResults: Out of 1240 0 group blood donors, 93.39% were Rh D and 5.56% were K positive. Amongst Rh antigens, e was the most common (98.3%) followed by D, C (84.76%), c (52.82%) and E (17.9%) with DCe/DCe (R(1)R(1), 43.8%) being the most common phenotype. In Kell blood group system, we found k antigen to be 100% and a rare phenotype Kp (a+b+) was found in 0.95% of the donors. For Kidd and Duffy blood group systems, Jk (a+b+) and Fy (a+b-) were the most common phenotypes (49.21% and 43.85%, respectively). In the MNS blood group system, M+N+S+s+ (19.55%) was the most common whereas M-N+S+s- (1.26%) was least common phenotype found. We found rare Lu (a+b+) and Lu (a-b-) phenotypes in 0.95% and 3.15% of the donors, respectively. Xg(a) antigen was seen in 86.67% and 62.6% of female and male donors, respectively.

“Background: This study aimed to

“Background: This study aimed to SB525334 TGF-beta/Smad inhibitor evaluate the clinical features of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome

(PRES) in children. Methods: The medical records of 31 patients from five medical centers who were diagnosed with PRES from 2001 to 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. In the 31 patients, 16 were males, and 15 females, with a median age of 7 years (3-12 years). Patients younger than 10 years accounted for 74.2% of the 31 patients. Results: Seizure, the most common clinical sign, occurred in 29 of the 31 patients. Visual disturbances were also observed in 20 patients. Cerebral imaging abnormalities were bilateral and predominant in the parietal and occipital white matter. In this series, three patients died in the acute phase of PRES. One patient had resolution of neurologic presentation within one week, but no apparent improvement in radiological abnormalities was observed at eight months. One patient showed gradual recovery of both neurologic presentation and radiological abnormalities during Selleckchem Sonidegib follow-up at

eight months. One patient developed long-term cortical blindness. All of the PRES patients with hematologic tumor had a worse prognosis than those without hematologic tumor. Conclusions: Seizure is a prevalent characteristic of children with PRES. Poor prognosis can be seen in PRES patients with hematologic tumor.”
“Changes in n-3 LCL161 ic50 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA, >= 20 carbons and >= 3 carbon-carbon double bonds) at baseline, during fish oil supplementation (4 weeks) and during washout (8 weeks) were compared in venous plasma, erythrocytes, whole blood and fingertip prick blood (weeks 0, 4, 8 and 12) with additional weekly fingertip prick samples. Correlations between the various blood fractions were slightly stronger when n-3 HUFA status was expressed as the percentage of n-3 HUFA in total HUFA as compared with the sum of EPA and DHA. Increases and decreases in n-3 HUFA were more dramatic in plasma,

and EPA responded rapidly (within I week) with fish oil supplementation and cessation. Sex differences in the proportions of n-3 HUFA in blood were also apparent at baseline with females (n = 7) having a tendency for higher docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) relative to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-3, 22:5n-3) as compared with males (n = 9). Further n-3 biomarker research in larger populations is required. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is an easily measured inflammatory biomarker. This study compared the association of percent body fat mass (%FM), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with hs-CRP in a Taiwanese population.\n\nMethods: A total of 1669 subjects aged 40-88 years were recruited in 2004 in a metropolitan city in Taiwan.

The extended portions of the domain are well-structured and held

The extended portions of the domain are well-structured and held together entirely by side chain-side chain interactions. Extensive expression screening showed that these additional contacts provide significantly increased stability to the domain. A similar 90 degrees kink is found in only one other SH3 domain structure, while side chain contacts linking the termini have never been described before. As a result Vadimezan mw of the increased size of CIN85 SH3 domain C, the proximal proline rich region is positioned such that a possible intramolecular interaction is structurally

inhibited. Using the key interactions of the termini as the basis for sequence analysis allowed the identification of several SH3 domains with flanking sequences that could adopt similar structures. This work illustrates the importance of careful experimental analysis of domain boundaries even for a well-characterized fold such as the SH3 domain.”
“We report the creation of a transgenic dog that conditionally expresses eGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) under the regulation of doxycycline. Briefly, fetal fibroblasts infected with a Tet-on eGFP vector were used for somatic cell nuclear transfer. Subsequently reconstructed oocytes were transferred to recipients. Three clones BEZ235 having transgenes were born and one dog was alive. The dog showed all

features of inducible expression of eGFP upon doxycycline administration, and successful breeding resulted in eGFP-positive puppies, confirming stable insertion of the transgene into the genome. This inducible dog model will be useful for a variety of medical research studies. genesis 49:472-478, 2011. (C) 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“Based on the report that the introduction of the biosynthetic precursor of lincomycin, propylproline, could increase the production of lincomycin (Bruce et al. in US Patent 3,753,859, 1973), a mutant strain pro10-20, with resistance of feedback suppression of proline (an analog of propylproline) was thus selected and lincomycin production increased LY2835219 by 10%. The addition of three amino acids

(l-proline, l-tyrosine, l-alanine) which are the precursors of propylproline to the fermentation medium was found to enhance the accumulation of l-dopa through different pathways and was favorable to lincomycin biosynthesis. The production of lincomycin was increased by 23, 10, 13%, respectively, with the addition of 0.05 g L(-1) l-proline at 60 h, 0.005 g L(-1) l-tyrosine and 0.1 g L(-1) l-alanine directly in the medium.”
“Any increase in perforations in surgical gloves is a concern. We conducted a prospective study to find a clinically acceptable brand of latex-free gloves suitable for orthopaedic surgery.\n\nFive different brands of gloves approved for use were selected. Two of the latex-free gloves were rejected as their clinical usability in arthroplasty was poor.

Women who had never used EC and who had more than one episode of

Women who had never used EC and who had more than one episode of unprotected sex within the past month were less likely to request EC when use was indicated, learn more while single women were more likely to request EC.\n\nConclusions: Counseling regarding EC options is particularly important for women seeking same-day pregnancy testing who do not desire pregnancy. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”

of idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is difficult, and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. However, many drugs causing DILI are considered to form reactive metabolites and covalently bind to cellular macromolecules in the liver. The objective of this study was to clarify whether the risk of idiosyncratic DILI can be estimated by comparing in vitro covalent binding (CB) levels among 12 positive compounds (acetaminophen, alpidem, bromfenac, carbamazepine, diclofenac, flutamide, imipramine, nefazodone, tacrine, ticlopidine, tienilic acid, and troglitazone) for DILI and 12 negative compounds (acetylsalicylic

acid, caffeine, dexamethasone, losartan, ibuprofen, paroxetine, pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, sertraline, theophylline, venlafaxine, and zolpidem). After incubation with human liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH, there was a large overlap in the distribution of CB amounts between the positive and negative groups. On addition of UDP-glucuronic acid (UDPGA) as a cofactor for glucuronidation, the CB levels of bromfenac and diclofenac were increased. With addition of nucleophilic glutathione (GSH), values for most compounds were decreased. However, separation A-1155463 concentration of the two groups on the basis of CB could not be improved by UDPGA or GSH. Furthermore, CB with human hepatocytes also failed to discriminate positive from negative compounds. Therefore, the CB amount alone is not sufficient for risk assessment of DILI. In contrast, when the CB amount Selleck AR-13324 was multiplied by the maximum daily dose, which

may reflect maximum hepatic exposure, the two groups did become discriminated. Taken together, our findings suggest that the combination of CB amount and daily dose can estimate the risk of idiosyncratic DILI.”
“Various conjugates of anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox) covalently bound by the hydrolytically degradable hydrazone bond to the drug carrier based on N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymers were synthesised. Structure of the conjugates differed in the type and the content of hydrophobic substituent (dodecyl, oleic acid and cholesterol moieties) introduced into the polymer structure. In aqueous solutions the conjugates self-assembled into high-molecular-weight suprantolecular structures, such as polymeric micelles or stable hydrophilic nanoparticles 13-37 nm in diameter, depending on the type and the content of hydrophobic substituents. Treatment of mice bearing EL-4 T cell lymphoma with the conjugates in the therapeutic regime of drug administration (i.v.

It is suggested that virus infection represent an important sourc

It is suggested that virus infection represent an important source of variance in regeneration. The analysis of variance revealed the highest effect of genotypes on the regenerative capacity of the grapevine meristems (75,8 %).”
“This article reports on the optical properties of 0.5% mol of Sm3+, Dy3+ ion-doped B2O3-TeO2-Li2O-AlF3 (LiAlFBT) glasses. The glass samples were characterized by optical absorption and emission spectra.

Judd-Ofelt theory was applied to analyze the optical absorption spectra and calculate the intensity parameters and radiative properties of the emission transitions. The emission spectra of Sm3+ and Dy3+:LiAlFBT glasses showed check details a bright reddish-orange emission at 598nm (4G5/26H7/2) and an intense yellow emission at 574nm (4F9/26H13/2), respectively. Full width at half maximum (FWHM), stimulated emission cross section, gain bandwidth and optical gain values were also calculated to extend the applications of the Sm3+ and Dy3+:LiAlFBT glasses. Copyright (c) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”

the recent years, the national databases of STR profiles have grown in size due to the success of forensic DNA analysis in solving crimes. The accumulation of DNA profiles implies that the probability Ro-3306 of a random match or near match of two randomly selected DNA profiles in the database increases.\n\nWe analysed 53,295 STR profiles from individuals investigated in relation to crime case investigations at the Department

of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Incomplete STR profiles (437 circa 0.8% of the total), 48 redundant STR profiles from monozygotic twins (0.09%), 6 redundant STR profiles of unknown cause and 1283 STR profiles from repeated testing of individuals were removed leaving 51,517 complete 10 locus STR profiles for VX-809 clinical trial analysis. The number corresponds to approximately 1% of the Danish population. We compared all STR profiles to each other, i.e. 1.3 x 10(9) comparisons.\n\nWith these large number of comparisons, it is likely to observe DNA profiles that coincide on many loci, which has concerned some commentators and raised questions about “overstating” the power of DNA evidence. We used the method of Weir [11,12] and Curran et al. [3] to compare the observed and expected number of matches and near matches in the data set. We extended the methods by computing the covariance matrix of the summary statistic and used it for the estimation of the identical-by-descent parameter, theta. The analysis demonstrated a number of close relatives in the Danish data set and substructure. The main contribution to the substructure comes from close relatives. An overall u-value of 1% compensated for the observed substructure, when close familial relationships were accounted for. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.