Methods: A prospective, consecutive and comparative trial was

\n\nMethods: A prospective, consecutive and comparative trial was conducted in 75 patients who underwent elective pulmonary resection for non small cell lung cancer.

This study compared two digitals devices with the current analogue version in 75 patients. The digital and analogue groups had 26, 24, and 25 patients, respectively.\n\nResults: Clinical population data were not statistically different between the groups. The withdrawal of the chest tube was Thopaz, 2.4 Screening Library manufacturer days; Digivent, 3.3 days and PleurEvac, 4.5days. Patients and nurses were subjectively more comfortable with digital devices. Surgeons obtained more objective information with digital devices. The safety mechanism

of the Thopaz was also subjectively better, and one patient was discharged home without complications after one week.\n\nConclusions: The digital and continuous measurement of air leak instead of the currently used static analogue systems reduced the chest tube withdrawal and hospital stay by more accurately and reproducibly measuring air leak. Intrapleural pressure curves from the Digivent may also help predict the optimal chest tube setting for each patient. The Thopaz alarm mechanism is very useful to prevent deficiencies in the mechanism and do not required wall suction. (C) 2010 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana, S.L. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives To assess contraceptive AG-881 in vivo knowledge, use of emergency contraception (EC) and the

motives of women seeking induced abortion.\n\nMethods A descriptive and cross-sectional study conducted at the T. C. Izmir Dr. Hayri Ekrem Ustundag Gynaecology and Maternity Hospital and the Izmir Ataturk Research and Teaching Hospital, Turkey. The research sample consisted of 440 women who requested an abortion between January and May 2010, and voluntarily agreed to participate.\n\nResults Sixty-two percent of the women became pregnant while using family planning (FP) methods. The contraceptive used by 42%% was the condom, and 45%% believed that they had become pregnant because of improper use of the contraceptive. Ninety-three percent had never used EC. Thirty-seven percent Lonafarnib concentration wanted their pregnancy terminated because they did not want another child, whereas 26%% viewed induced abortion as a method of FP. Sixty-nine percent of the women received FP counselling from health professionals, and 80%% found the information provided adequate.\n\nConclusion The women assessed were insufficiently knowledgeable about FP in general and EC in particular. Many had become pregnant as a result of inaccurate information.”
“Chemical allergens bind directly, or after metabolic or abiotic activation, to endogenous proteins to become allergenic.

The most effective modification

The most effective modification selleck products of VMPP was initial position of fingers 12 cm apart (x=+/- 6) on the x-axis, 2 cm anteriorly from the posterior fourchette (y=+2) on the

y-axis with 1cm movement of both finger and thumb toward the midline on the x-axis (Delta x=1) with no movement on the y-axis (Delta y=0). Conclusions In a biomechanical assessment with simulation of vaginal delivery, exact placement of fingertips on the perineal skin, together with their co-ordinated movement, plays an important role in the extent of reduction of perineal tension.”
“STAR/StarD1, part of a protein complex, mediates the transport of cholesterol from the outer to inner mitochondrial membrane, which is the rate-limiting step for steroidogenesis, and where steroid hormone synthesis begins. Herein, we examined the role of oxidant-sensitive p38 MAPKs in the regulation of STAR gene transcription, using model steroidogenic cell lines. Our data

indicate that oxidant activation of p38 MAPK exhibits a negative regulatory role in the induction of functional expression of STAR, as evidenced by enhanced induction of STAR (mRNA/protein) expression and increased steroidogenesis during pharmacological AZD9291 concentration inhibition of p38 MAPK or in cells with increased transient overexpression of a dominant-negative (dn) form of p38 MAPK alpha or p38 MAPK beta. Studies with rat Star-promoter demonstrated that overexpression of p38 MAPK alpha-wt, -beta, or -gamma significantly reduced both basal and cAMP-sensitive promoter activity. In contrast, overexpression of p38 MAPK alpha-dn, -beta, or -gamma enhanced the Star promoter activity under basal conditions and in response to cAMP stimulation. Use of various constitutively active and dn constructs and designer knock-out cell lines demonstrated

that MKK3 and MKK6, the upstream activators of p38 MAPKs, play a role in p38 MAPK alpha-mediated inhibition of Star promoter activity. In addition, our studies raised the possibility of CREB being a potential target of the p38 MAPK inhibitory effect on Star promoter activity. Collectively, these data provide novel mechanistic information about how oxidant-sensitive p38 MAPKs, particularly Selleckchem P505-15 p38 MAPK alpha, contribute to the negative regulation of Star gene expression and inhibit steroidogenesis.”
“MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous RNAs of similar to 22 nucleotides that have been shown to play regulatory role by negatively affecting the expression of genes at the post-transcriptional level. Information of miRNAs on some important crops like soybean, Arabidopsis, and rice, etc. are available, but no study on heat-responsive novel miRNAs has yet been reported in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

The prognostic value of ESR1 was tested using univariate and mult

The prognostic value of ESR1 was tested using univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models, Kaplan-Meier survival statistics and the log-rank test ESR1 positively correlates with proliferation markers and histopathological grading. ESR1 was a significant predictor of survival as a continuous variable in the univariate Cox regression see more analysis. In multivariate analysis, elevated

baseline ESR1 mRNA levels predicted prolonged progression-free survival (P=0.041) and overall survival (P=0.01) after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, independently of pathological grade and age. We conclude that pretreatment ESR1 mRNA is associated with tumour growth and is a strong prognostic factor in ovarian cancer, independent of the strongest clinical parameters used in clinical routine. We suggest that ESR1 mRNA status should be considered in order to minimize possible confounding effects in ovarian cancer clinical trials, and that early treatment with anti-hormonal agents based on reliable hormone receptor status determination

is worth investigating Endocrine-Related Cancer (2009) check details 16 1241-1249″
“Synaptic plasticity is implemented by the interaction of glutamate receptors with PDZ domain proteins. Glutamate transporters provide the only known mechanism of clearance of glutamate from excitatory synapses, and GLT1 is the major glutamate transporter. We show here that GLT1 interacts with the PDZ domain protein PICK1, which plays a critical role in regulating the expression of glutamate receptors at excitatory synapses. A yeast two-hybrid screen of a neuronal library using the carboxyl tail of GLT1b yielded clones expressing PICK1.

The GLT1b C-terminal peptide bound to PICK1 with high affinity (K-i = 6.5 +/- 0.4 mu M) in an in vitro fluorescence polarization assay. We also tested peptides based on other variants of GLT1 and other glutamate transporters. GLT1b co-immunoprecipitated with PICK1 from rat brain lysates and COS7 cell lysates derived from cells transfected with plasmids expressing PICK1 and GLT1b. In addition, expression of GLT1b in COS7 cells changed the distribution of PICK1, bringing it to the surface. GLT1b and PICK1 co-localized with each other and with synaptic markers in hippocampal neurons in culture. Phorbol ester, an activator Blebbistatin of protein kinase C (PKC), a known PICK1 interactor, had no effect on glutamate transport in rat forebrain neurons in culture. However, we found that exposure of neurons to a myristolated decoy peptide with sequence identical to the C-terminal sequence of GLT1b designed to block the PICK1-GLT1b interaction rendered glutamate transport into neurons responsive to phorbol ester. These results suggest that the PICK1-GLT1b interaction regulates the modulation of GLT1 function by PKC.”
“Hydrocephalus presenting with movement disorder is very rare, especially in children.

“Depression during and after pregnancy can have a negative

“Depression during and after pregnancy can have a negative impact on women’s quality of life and on the development of the newborn child. Interventions have been shown to have a positive influence on both mothers and children. Predictive factors for depressive

symptoms might possibly be able to identify groups that are at high risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of socioeconomic factors in predicting depressive symptoms during and after pregnancy. Depressiveness was measured using the German version of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at three time-points, in a prospective cohort study (n = 1,100). Visit 1 (Q1) was at study entry in the third trimester of the pregnancy, visit 2 (Q2) was shortly after birth, and visit Torin 1 nmr 3 (Q3) was 6-8 months after birth. Depression scores were associated with socioeconomic factors and time in linear mixed models. Parity status, education status, monthly income, residential property status, and partnership status, as well as interactions between them, were found to be predictive factors for EPDS scores. Fer-1 purchase The strongest factor influencing depressive symptoms was partnership status. Women who did not have an intact partnership had EPDS scores that were on average four points higher than in women with a partner at all three

study visits (P smaller than 0.000001). Socioeconomic factors define subgroups that have different depression scores during and after pregnancy. Partnership status appears to be one of the most important influencing factors and could be useful

for identifying women who should be offered an intervention to prevent possible negative effects on the mother or child.”
“The reaction of CHF2OCF2CHFCl with atomic chlorine was studied using B3LYP,16-311G(d,p), BHandHLYP/6-311G(d,p), and M06-2X/6-311G(d,p) methods and further using CCSD(T) and QCISD(T) methods. Two hydrogen abstraction channels were found for the title reaction. Dynamics calculations were followed by means of canonical variational MLN2238 research buy transition state with the small-curvature tunneling correction between 220 and 2,000 K. Our rate constant k=2.90 x 10(-15) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) is in reasonable agreement with the available data (3.20 +/- 0.32)x 10(-15) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 296 K. The three-parameter Arrhenius expression (in the unit of cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) for the title reaction is given as k (T)=1.38x 10(-19)T(2.57) exp (-2622.95/T).”
“Two sides of functions of tight junctions; the barrier and the channel in the paracellular pathway are believed to be essential for the development and physiological functions of organs. Recent identification of molecular components of tight junctions has enabled us to analyze their functions by generating knockout mice of the corresponding genes. In addition, positional cloning has identified mutations in the genes of several components of tight junctions in hereditary diseases.

Male patients treated with drugs, whose teratogenic potential has

Male patients treated with drugs, whose teratogenic potential has been well assessed

or suspected for maternal exposure, should be advised to practice effective birth control during therapy and Lip to one or two cycles of spermatogenesis and to avoid semen contact with vaginal walls during first trimester of pregnancy. selleck screening library (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background and Purpose-It has been suggested that Chagas disease (CD) and particularly CD cardiomyopathy are independent risk factors for cerebrovascular events. Strong evidence is scarce, cardioembolic and inflammatory mechanisms have been proposed, and most studies lack representative and well-matched controls. We sought to investigate CD,

defined by positive serology, as an independent risk factor for stroke, by comparing patients admitted with ischemic stroke with representative control patients with a very similar cardiovascular risk factor profile.\n\nMethods-We performed a case-control study with 101 consecutive stroke patients and 100 consecutive acute coronary syndrome patients admitted to an emergency hospital. CD was investigated in all patients and was confirmed when both immunofluorescence and hemagglutination tests were positive. Clinical, laboratory, and ECG findings were analyzed.\n\nResults-We found that age (P = 0.006),

female Ulixertinib mw sex (P = 0.01), systolic Liproxstatin-1 order blood pressure (P = 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.03), previous stroke/transient ischemic attack history (P < 0.001), atrial fibrillation (P = 0.005), other arrhythmias (P = 0.05), and CD-positive serology (P = 0.002) were more frequent among stroke patients than among patients with acute coronary syndromes. After a multivariable analysis with a backward elimination procedure, previous stroke/transient ischemic attack history (odds ratio = 6.98; 95% CI, 2.99 to 16.29), atrial fibrillation (odds ratio = 4.52; 95% CI, 1.45 to 14.04), and CD-positive serology (odds ratio = 7.17; 95% CI, 1.50 to 34.19) remained independently associated with stroke.\n\nConclusions-CD seems to be an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke. For patients in or coming from endemic regions, CD should be considered an etiologic or contributing factor for stroke. (Stroke. 2009; 40: 3691-3694.)”
“Despite the safety and feasibility of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy, an optimal cell type has not yet emerged in terms of electromechanical integration in infarcted myocardium. We found that poor to moderate survival benefits of MSC-implanted rats were caused by incomplete electromechanical integration induced by tissue heterogeneity between myocytes and engrafted MSCs in the infarcted myocardium.

Furthermore, TIA patients also have notable variation as compared

Furthermore, TIA patients also have notable variation as compared to control group. Serum ox-LDL and inflammatory biomarkers were positively correlated with the frequency of Th17 cells and negatively correlated with the frequency of Treg cells. Treg TH-302 cell line and Th17 cells from ACI patients were significantly susceptible to ox-LDL-mediated alterations in vitro. Conclusions: Th17/Treg cells were imbalanced in ACI patients, and ox-LDL may contribute to this imbalance and lead to the occurrence of ACI suggesting their pathogenetic role in ACI.”

properties of intersubband transition in AlGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells (MQWs) grown on different AlGaN templates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition are investigated. The strain states of GaN wells are studied by Raman spectra and reciprocal space mappings, which shows that the GaN wells are compressively strained and the compressive strain is increased when the Al mole composition is varied from 0 to 0.3. The Fourier transform infrared

spectrometer results show that the intersubband transition wavelength in the AlGaN/GaN MQWs can be tuned from 5.14 mu m to 4.65 mu m when the Al mole composition of the AlGaN template is increased. The results can be attributed to the quantum confined Stark effect. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. []“
“A new approach to the extraction of bioactive 3-deazaneplanocin A cell line phenolic compounds from carob kibbles has been proposed. Carob GDC-0994 cost pulp kibbles, a by-product of the carob bean gum production, were subject to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and to ultrasound assisted (UAE) and conventional solid-liquid extractions with two different solvent systems (100% H2O and 70% acetone), in order to obtain phenolic rich extracts with biological activities. These extracts were characterized

for total phenolics content, antioxidant activity and their phenolic profile was qualitatively evaluated by HPLC-DAD. Chromatographic profile of SFE extract showed a diversity of phenolic compounds while ultrasound and conventional extracts contained mainly gallic acid. The highest phenolics concentration and antioxidant capacity was also found in the SFE extract. Preliminary screening of the extracts antiproliferative activity on rat N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells, and on human HeLa cervical and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines revealed that carob SFE extract exhibited a much higher antiproliferative effect in the studied tumor cells, indicating its greater potential as a source of natural antitumor compounds. Supercritical fluid extraction revealed to be a more selective and efficient method of extraction. Thus, the potential association of two environmentally clean processes (UAE and SFE) for obtaining polyphenols from carob kibbles will enable bioactive compounds within an integrated and sustainable recovery process.

Methods: We conducted

\n\nMethods: We conducted AZD6094 a cross-sectional study among 806 postmenopausal women participating in the Prospect-EPIC study. Usual physical activity was assessed using a short questionnaire and summarized into a simple, validated four-level index. This index combines occupational physical activity with time spent on cycling and sporting. Levels of estrone, estradiol, androstenedione, DHEAS, testosterone, and SHBG were measured in plasma. General linear models were used to examine the association between usual physical activity and sex hormone levels, adjusted for confounders.\n\nResults: We observed an inverse

association between physical activity and estradiol learn more levels (free: inactive, 0.26 pg/mL; active, 0.23 pg/mL; P-trend = 0.045; total: inactive, 8.8 pg/mL; active, 8.0 pg/mL; P-trend = 0.08) and a positive association between physical activity and SHBG (inactive, 1.5.1 nmol/L; active, 19.3 nmol/L; P-trend = 0.05). These associations could largely be explained by the effects of sporting. We also observed a positive association between physical activity and DHEAS (inactive, 352.4 ng/mL; active, 460.3 ng/mL; P-trend = 0.01).\n\nConclusions: Our results are in accordance with the hypothesis

that usual physical activity decreases estradiol levels and increases SHBG. We also found that high levels of physical activity are associated with high levels of DHEAS. Furthermore, our results suggest that vigorous forms of physical activity influence sex hormone

levels most. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009;18(2):377-83)”
“Does comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS) of cells sampled from the blastocyst trophectoderm (TE) accurately predict the chromosome complement of the inner cell mass (ICM)?\n\nComprehensive chromosome screening of a TE sample is unlikely to be confounded by mosaicism and has the potential for high diagnostic accuracy.\n\nThe effectiveness of chromosome aneuploidy screening is limited by the technologies available and chromosome mosaicism in the embryo. Combined with improving methods for cryopreservation and blastocyst culture, Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor TE biopsy and CCS is considered to be a promising approach to select diploid embryos for transfer.\n\nThe study was performed between January 2011 and August 2011. In the first part, a new ICM isolation method was developed and tested on 20 good morphology blastocysts. In the main phase of the study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to reanalyse the ICMs and TEs separated from 70 embryos obtained from 26 patients undergoing blastocyst stage array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) PGS cycles.\n\nThe isolated ICM and TE fractions were characterized by immunostaining for KRT18.

The most common reasons found for gaps in trial precision were la

The most common reasons found for gaps in trial precision were lack of sufficient trials and lack of sufficient large sample size. Only a few research gaps were ascribed to ‘Lack of information’ caused by focus on mainly surrogate trial outcomes. According to the chosen ABT-263 clinical trial assessment criteria, a lack of adequate randomisation, allocation concealment and blinding/masking in trials covering all reviewed GIC topics was noted

(selection- and detection/performance bias risk). Trial results appear to be less affected by loss-to-follow-up (attrition bias risk).\n\nConclusion: This audit represents an adjunct of the systematic review articles it has covered. Its results do not change the systematic review’s conclusions but highlight existing research gaps concerning the precision and internal validity of reviewed trials in detail. These gaps should be addressed in future GIC-related Selleck Bafilomycin A1 clinical research.”
“MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as a novel class of endogenous, small, non-coding RNAs of 22 nucleotides (nts) in length, which plays important roles in post-transcriptional degradation of target mRNA or inhibition of protein synthesis through binding the specific sites of target mRNA. Growing

evidences have shown that miRNAs play an important role in various biological processes, including growth and development, signal transduction, apoptosis, proliferation, stress responses, maintenance of genome stability, and so on. In our study, we used bioinformatic tools to predict miRNA and the corresponding target genes of Festuca arundinacea. We used known miRNAs of other plants from miRBase to search against expressed sequence tags (EST) databases and genome survey sequences (GSS) of F. arundinacea. A total of 8 potential miRNAs were predicted. Phylogenetic analysis of the predicted miRNAs revealed that miRNA398c of F. arundinacea species was evolutionary highly conserved with Populus trichocarpa.

The 8 potential miRNAs corresponding to 20 target genes were found. Most of the miRNA CAL-101 cell line target genes were predicted to encode transcription factors that regulate cell growth and development, signaling, metabolism, and other biology processes. By bioinformatics methods, we can effectively predict novel miRNAs and its target genes and add information to F. arundinacea miRNA database. Moreover, it shows a path for the prediction and analysis of miRNAs to those species whose genomes are not available through bioinformatics tools.”
“Background: The literature on salvage procedures for failed total ankle replacement (TAR) is sparse. We report a series of 17 patients who had a failed TAR converted to a tibiotalar or a tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis. Methods: Between 2003 and 2012, a total of 17 patients with a failed TAR underwent an arthrodesis. All patients were followed on a regular basis through chart review, clinical examination and radiological evaluation.

4% (6/39) MR-predicted IPH was significantly higher prevalence i

4% (6/39). MR-predicted IPH was significantly higher prevalence in high-grade stenosis group (p=0.010). Relative risk between carotid MPRAGE-positive signal and ipsilateral high-signal intensity on DWI in arteries with carotid artery

plaques was 6.8 (p=0.010). Conclusion : Carotid MPRAGE-positive signal in patients was associated with an increased risk of territorial acute infarction as detected objectively by brain DWI. The relative risk of stroke was increased in high-grade stenosis categories.”
“Effects of chicken GNS-1480 ic50 collagen hydrolysate (CCH) on atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E-deficient C57BL/6.KOR-ApoE(shI) mice were investigated in this paper. The mice were fed on either a normal CE-2 diet (control group) or a diet containing 10% CCH (CCH group) for 12 wk. Compared with that of the control, the amount of total plasma cholesterol, total hepatic cholesterol and hepatic triglycerides in the CCH group was reduced by 14.4, 24.7 and 42.8%, respectively. Histological analysis results showed that the abundance of diffuse KU-57788 price hepatic lipid droplets and fat vacuoles was decreased in the CCH group. Meanwhile, the concentration of proinflammatory

cytokines in the CCH group plasma, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-alpha), was downregulated by 43.4, 17.9 and 24.1%, respectively. The present results suggested that CCH treatment might help prevent atherosclerosis through not only its lipid-lowering effects but also inhibiting expression of inflammatory cytokines.”
“Background The role of ambulance clinicians in providing psychosocial care in major incidents and emergencies is recognised

in recent Department of Health guidance. The study described in this paper identified NHS professional first responders’ needs for education about survivors’ psychosocial responses, training in psychosocial click here skills, and continuing support.\n\nMethod Ambulance staff participated in an online Delphi questionnaire, comprising 74 items (Round 1) on 7-point Likert scales. Second-round and third-round participants each received feedback based on the previous round, and responded to modified versions of the original items and to new items for clarification.\n\nResults One hundred and two participants took part in Round 1; 47 statements (64%) achieved consensus. In Round 2, 72 people from Round 1 participated; 15 out of 39 statements (38%) achieved consensus. In Round 3, 49 people from Round 2 participated; 15 out of 27 statements (59%) achieved consensus. Overall, there was consensus in the following areas: ‘psychosocial needs of patients’ (consensus in 34/37 items); ‘possible sources of stress in your work’ (8/9); ‘impacts of distress in your work’ (7/10); ‘meeting your own emotional needs’ (4/5); ‘support within your organisation’ (2/5); ‘needs for training in psychosocial skills for patients’ (15/15); ‘my needs for psychosocial training and support’ (5/6).

For example, the heating and cooling temperature-jump induced kin

For example, the heating and cooling temperature-jump induced kinetics involved in the folding/unfolding conformational surface of ribonuclease A is illustrated above.\n\nIn both of our model Dinaciclib datasheet systems, the kinetic

transition states of several reaction steps were path-dependent, i.e. the rates and thermodynamic activation parameters depend on the direction of the applied pressure and temperature perturbation. This asymmetry suggests that proteins cope with external stress by adapting their structure to form different ensembles of conformational substates. These states are distinguished by their activation enthalpy and entropy barriers, which can be strongly negative in the folding direction. Based on our analysis of activation compressibility and heat capacity, hydration and packing

defects of the kinetic transition states are also very important for determining the reaction path. We expect that a more generalized use of this experimental approach should allow researchers to obtain greater insight into the mechanisms of physiologically relevant protein structural changes.”
“In a prospective study of prostate cancer incidence (127 cases), among 22 320 Japanese men, sleep duration was associated with lower risk; the multivariate hazard ratio of men who slept >= 9 h per day compared with those who slept less was 0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.29-0.79, P for trend = 0.02).”
“Tumor metastasis is a main contributor MK-4827 to death in cancer patients. In the last years, a new class of molecules that reduces the metastatic propensity has been identified: metastasis suppressors. These proteins regulate multiple steps in the metastatic cascade, including cell invasion, survival in the vascular and lymphatic Vorinostat price circulation, and colonization of distant organ sites. As a consequence, they

are very important therapeutic targets. This review discusses our current understanding of metastasis suppressors and how this knowledge might be useful to improve the treatment of cancer patients.”
“Motivation: With the growing availability of high-throughput protein-protein interaction (PPI) data, it has become possible to consider how a protein’s local or global network characteristics predict its function.\n\nResults: We introduce a graph-theoretic approach that identifies key regulatory proteins in an organism by analyzing proteins’ local PPI network structure. We apply the method to the yeast genome and describe several properties of the resulting set of regulatory hubs. Finally, we demonstrate how the identified hubs and putative target gene sets can be used to identify causative, functional regulators of differential gene expression linked to human disease.”
“Mechanical ventilation carries the risk of ventilator-induced-lung-injury (VILI). To minimize the risk of VILI, ventilator settings should be adapted to the individual patient properties.