Typhimurium infections, and MLVA data based on 16 VNTRs can be useful in establishing clonal structures among isolates. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Objective. Regarding the efficacy of joint lavage in the treatment of knee OA, we evaluated reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the efficacy of joint lavage alone or joint lavage combined with IA steroid injection to alleviate pain and improve function in knee OA.\n\nMethods. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled
Trials for all reports published since GSK1210151A chemical structure 1966 of RCTs, evaluating either the efficacy of joint lavage alone or of joint lavage combined with steroid injection for knee OA on pain intensity and physical function. The time point for evaluation was a priori fixed at 3 months. Effect www.selleckchem.com/screening/autophagy-signaling-compound-library.html size (ES) was calculated to compare results across studies.\n\nResults. From the 49 articles identified, reports of six RCTs were analysed
for a total of 855 OA patients (511 in the treatment group and 344 in the control group). The pooled ES of the joint lavage vs placebo was not significant for pain intensity [ES = 0.17 (-0.37, 0.71)] or physical function [ES = -0.15 (-0.34, 0.04)], nor was the pooled ES of joint lavage combined with steroid injection vs joint lavage alone significant for pain intensity [ES = -0.82 (-2.47, 0.82)] or physical function [ES = 0.09 (-0.28, 0.45)].\n\nConclusions. This meta-analysis of RCTs investigating
joint lavage for knee OA suggests that at 3 months, (i) joint lavage alone LY2835219 price does not provide significant improvement in pain or function and (ii) the combination of joint lavage and IA steroid injection is no more efficacious than lavage alone.”
“Background: Type-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) 4G/5G polymorphism may influence the PAI-1 expression. High plasma levels of PAI-1 are associated with coronary artery disease (CAD).\n\nObjective: This study investigated the influence of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism on plasma PAI-1 levels and its association with CAD assessed by coronary angiography.\n\nMethods: Blood sample of 35 individuals with angiographycally normal coronary arteries, 31 individuals presenting mild/moderate atheromatosis, 57 individuals presenting severe atheromatosis and 38 healthy individuals (controls) were evaluated. In patients and controls, the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism was determined by PCR amplification using allele-specific primers. Plasma PAI-1 levels were quantified by ELISA assay (American Diagnostica).\n\nResults: No difference was found between groups regarding age, gender and body mass index. Plasma PAI-1 levels and 4G/4G genotype frequency were significantly higher in the severe atheromatosis group compared to the other groups (p<0.001). Furthermore, patients with 4G/4G genotype (r=0.28, p<0.
\n\nPatients who had fundoplication in conjunction with endoluminal radiofrequency ablation were more likely to achieve durable ablation compared with patients who were treated with proton pump inhibitor therapy. It appears that patients with long-segment Barrett’s esophagus are at higher risk for persistent or recurrent Barrett’s metaplasia. Consideration should be given for an antireflux operation in patients with long-segment Barrett’s esophagus and planned endoluminal radiofrequency ablation.”
“Cryptosporidium is a coccidian that can lead to diarrhea, especially in immunosuppressed individuals. Retroviruses
are considered a primary cause of immunosuppression selleck screening library in cats. Fecal specimens and blood collected from the 60 cats were evaluated for the presence of acid-fast cryptosporidia in three consecutive stool samples and
for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibody by ELISA testing. Five animals (8.33%) shedding oocysts were found, one was both FIV- and FeLV-negative and four were FeLV-positive.”
“Temporal and spatial fluctuations in food abundance may affect the feeding habits of vertebrates in tropical dry forests. We explored the effects of season and forest degradation in dietary patterns of the painted spiny click here pocket mouse (Lyomis pictus (Thomas, 1893)) (Heteromyidae) in a Mexican tropical dry forest. We used carbon ((13)C, (12)C) and nitrogen ((15)N, (14)N) stable isotope analyses to SB203580 mw test the hypotheses that (i) L. pictus would increase its use of arthropods during the rainy season when seeds
are less available on the forest floor and (ii) that L. pictus would increase its use of arthropods in degraded forest compared with conserved forest. Our hypotheses were wrong because assimilated biomass was derived almost exclusively from seeds in both seasons and the importance of arthropods was marginal in both sites. Examination of food remains in feces and cheek pouches confirmed these trophic patterns. Seed hoarding during the season of high seed availability probably allows L. pictus to subsist on a seed-based diet throughout the year in conserved and disturbed forests. This behavioral trait would enable L. pictus to maintain its specialized feeding habit in environments threatened by habitat degradation.”
“The mountain long-eared bat, Plecotus macrobullaris, is a recently described species, and characterisation of its geographic and elevational distribution is still in progress. Captures in various environments led to a controversial ecological perception, with P macro bullaris initially defined as an alpine species but subsequently found in the Mediterranean seashore and other lowland areas.
Extraordinary advances have been made in the last decade on the knowledge of the receptors and mechanisms used by cells of the innate immunity not only to sense and eliminate the pathogen but also to communicate each other and collaborate with cells of adaptive immunity to mount an effective immune response. The analysis of innate immunity in elderly humans has evidenced that aging has a profound impact on the phenotype and functions of these cells. Thus altered expression and/or function of innate immunity receptors and signal transduction leading JQ1 manufacturer to defective activation and decreased chemotaxis, phagocytosis and intracellular killing of
pathogens have been described. The phenotype and function of NK cells from elderly individuals show significant changes that are compatible with remodeling of the different NK subsets, with a decrease in the CD56bright subpopulation and accumulation of the CD56dim cells, in particular those differentiated NK cells that co-express CD57, as well as a decreased expression of activating natural cytotoxicity receptors. These alterations can be responsible of the decreased production of cytokines and www.selleckchem.com/products/MK-2206.html the lower per-cell cytotoxicity observed in the elderly. Considering the relevance of these cells in the initiation of the immune response, the possibility to reactivate the function of innate immune cells should be considered in order to improve the response to pathogens and to vaccination in the elderly. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All
“Aim: This study investigates the effects of montelukast sodium (MK) (CysLTLT1 receptor antagonist) on CCl(4) induced hepatopathy on rat.\n\nMaterial and methods: We worked on 4 groups of 10 Wistar male rats each. The groups received as follows: group I (Control group) – saline, group II – MK 5 mg/kg/day i.p. for 5 days, group III – MK 5 mg/kg/day i.p., 1 day prior to and 4 days concomitantly with CCl(4) p.o., 0.3 ml/Kg/day and group IV – CCl(4), p.o., 0.3 ml/Kg/day for 4 days. One clay after the last administration, samples of blood were taken and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin (TB),
direct bilirubin (DB), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) as well as total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined. The histopathological GW-572016 cost exam was performed. We also determined Superoxide dismutase (SOD), MDA, CAT and GSH in liver homogenate.\n\nResults: Compared to group IV, group III exhibited statistically significant lower levels of ALT (318 +/- 15.75 versus 203.14 +/- 10.28 Ul, p < 0.0001), TB (3.16 +/- 0.30 versus 1.99 +/- 0.08 mg/dl, p < 0.0001), MDA in blood and in liver homogenate (4.98 +/- 1.71 versus 2.15 +/- 1.18 nmol/ml, p = 0.0004) and higher levels of SOD and CAT. Histopathologically, group IV presented important macro- and micro-vesicular hepatic steatosis and group III preserved lobular histoarchitecture and had less severe cellular lesions.\n\nConclusion: MK exhibits a partial hepatoprotective effect oil rats treated With CCl(4).
Meanwhile, real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR),
Western blot and immunofluorescence assays successively demonstrated downregulation of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 and miR-34c silencing uncovered the opposite results. Dual-luciferase reporter assays results revealed myc-associated zinc-finger protein (MAZ) is a target gene of miR-34c. Besides, mRNA and protein expressions of MAZ were reversely regulated by miR-34c. The down-expression of MAZ significantly impaired the integrity and increased the permeability of BTB as well as downregulated the expressions of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5. And chromatin immunoprecipitation verified that MAZ interacted with GGGCGGG, selleckchem CCCTCCC, and GGGAGGG DNA sequence of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5 promoter, respectively.
The over-expression or silencing of either miR-34c or MAZ was performed simultaneously to further explore their functional relations, and results elucidated that miR-34c and MAZ displayed reverse regulatory effects on the integrity and permeability of BTB as well as the expressions of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5. In conclusion, our present study indicated that miR-34c regulated the permeability of BTB via MAZ-mediated expression changes of ZO-1, occludin, and AP26113 claudin-5. J. Cell. Physiol. 230: 716-731, 2015. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company”
“The HIV-1 transframe protein p6* known to modulate HIV-1 protease activation has been suggested to interact with the viral pathogenicity factor Nef. However, a potential interaction site in p6* has not been mapped so far. To evaluate effects of p6* modification on
viral replication in light of Nef function, clustered Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Library in vitro substitutions were introduced into the central p6* region of the infectious provirus NL4-3 and virus growth and composition of the various mutants was analyzed in different cell cultures in the presence or absence of Nef. Whereas clustered p6* substitutions did neither affect particle incorporation of Nef, nor precursor maturation or viral infectivity, a simultaneous substitution of 40 of the total 56 p6* residues significantly diminished viral infectivity and replication in a Nef-independent manner. Furthermore, this extended modification was not capable of rescuing the negative effects of a transdominant Nef mutant on particle production suggesting that the proposed target for Nef interaction in Gag-Pol is located outside the modified p6* region. In sum these data strongly argue against a functional connection of the central p6* region and Nef during viral life cycle. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background Continuous quality improvement (CQI) in healthcare can be described as a reiterative approach to improving processes to reduce unexpected variation in health outcomes.
Insulin titration algorithms can empower patients to manage their therapy, and such algorithms are simple to use for patients treated with insulin analogs. As patients with T2DM become empowered by knowledge and gain more control of their disease, their physicians must then serve as their advisors rather than as their directors or prescribers.”
“Mercury is an environmental poison, and the damage to living system is generally severe. The severity of mercury
poisoning is consequent from the fact that it targets the thiol-containing enzymes, irreversibly oxidizing their critical thiol groups, www.selleckchem.com/products/gdc-0994.html consequently leading to an inactivation of the enzyme. The Na+/K+-ATPase is a sulfhydryl protein this website that is sensitive to Hg2+ assault. On the other hand, organoseleniums are a class of pharmacologically promising compounds with potent antioxidant effects. WhileHg2+ oxidizes sulfhydryl groups of Na+/K+-ATPase under in vitro and in vivo conditions, the organoselenium compounds inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase in vitro but enhance its activities under in vivo conditions with concomitant increase in the level of endogenous
thiols. Paradoxically, it appears that these two thiol oxidants can be used to counteract one another under in vivo conditions, and this hypothesis serves as the basis for this paper.”
“Protected areas (PAs) are inviolate and invaluable landscapes that promote the in situ conservation of endangered, threatened and rare
species. Accordingly, and in keeping with this definition, PA managers ensure that PAs are free from fire, poaching, grazing, non-timber forest products collection, mining, etc. In India, following the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Fer-1 cost Act (1972), there are today 102 and 515 National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries respectively. Many of these have in recent decades been heavily threatened by the spread of invasive alien plant species, notable among them being Lantana and Eupatorium. These species may have usurped as yet unestimated number of native plants and fauna, besides depressing the reproduction of native plant species. In fact, it is realized that the threat to biodiversity by invasive alien species (IAS) may only be second to that of fragmentation. Yet there seems to be no major attempts to eradicate, contain or manage IAS in PAs. Ironically, the justification for the lack of action lies in the definition of PAs that they need to be kept inviolate and therefore above any active intervention. In this article we bring home this serious contradiction in the approach to management of PAs in India and discuss the philosophical origins of this practice. We argue that if we are to protect our PAs from the serious scourge of invasive species, we would have to relook at the policy governing PA management and revise it to be more inclusive than exclusive.
The variation identified in milk CF indicates that a potential exists to reduce GHG emissions from milk production on both the national and farm levels through changes in management. As milk yield and feed DMI are two of the most influential parameters for milk CF, feed conversion efficiency (i.e. units ECM produced/unit DMI) can be used as a rough key performance indicator for predicting CF reductions. However, it must
be borne in mind that feeds have different CF due to where and how they are produced.”
“While several studies have evaluated how the degree of collagen alignment affects the response of soft tissues to tensile loading, the role of fibrillar organization in indentation is less understood. Collagen-based tissue-equivalents (TEs) provide a convenient model system to explore structure-function relationships since their microstructural properties can be easily controlled during fabrication. Panobinostat nmr The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of initial collagen alignment on the AZD9291 chemical structure mechanical and structural behavior of soft tissues subjected to indentation using TEs as a model system. Cell-compacted
TEs with either isotropic or highly anisotropic fiber alignment were subjected to four-step incremental stress-relaxation indentation tests. The mechanical properties, collagen reorganization and 2D strain patterns were quantified at each indentation step and compared between groups. While no differences were seen in the peak force response, significant differences were seen in relaxation behavior, fiber kinematics and tissue strain. Specifically, highly aligned samples exhibited a slower relaxation rate, smaller changes in collagen AC220 in vivo fiber orientation, larger changes in strength of alignment, and larger strain magnitudes compared to isotropic samples. Results demonstrate the significant role that microstructural organization plays in mediating the response of soft tissues to a non-tensile (i.e., indentation) mechanical stimulus.
(C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“[Purpose] This study investigated brain wave and cognitive function changes in children with cerebral palsy (CP) using neurofeedback (NFB). [Subjects] Twenty-eight children with CP were randomly allocated to the NFB (n = 14) and control (CON) (n = 14) groups.. [Methods] Two expert therapists provided the NFB and CON groups with traditional rehabilitation therapy in 30-minute sessions, semi-weekly, for 6 weeks. NFB training was provided only to the NFB group. The CON group received traditional rehabilitation therapy only. Before and after 6 weeks of intervention, electroencephalography and Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA) were performed, and the results were analyzed. [Results] Between before and after the intervention, both the NFB and CON groups showed significant differences in spectral edge frequency of 50%.
We explore the view that transitional probabilities between elements of chunks, rather than frequencies of chunks, may be the primary factor in artificial grammar learning (AGL). The transitional
probability model (TPM) that we propose is argued to provide an adaptive PCI-34051 chemical structure and parsimonious strategy for encoding local regularities in order to induce sequential structure from an input set of exemplars of the grammar. In a variant of the AGL procedure, in which participants estimated the frequencies of bigrams occurring in a set of exemplars they had been exposed to previously, participants were shown to be more sensitive to local transitional probability information than to mere pattern frequencies.”
“Hyperpolarization by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enhances Y-89 spin magnetization by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude
and provides a way to monitor yttrium-ligand complexation “on the fly” by means of Y-89 NMR. In this communication, we show an example of free yttrium Y3+ being complexed with 1,4,7,10-tetrakis(acetamido)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (DOTAM) to form [Y(DOTAM)(H2O)](3+) as a model for gadolinium in contrast agents.”
“Ali L, Cheney R, Merzianu M. Subclinical chronic lymphocytic leukemia with atypical cutaneous presentation.”
“Recent studies in patients with dilated find more cardiomyopathy (DCM) have detected the genome of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (BBSL) in endomyocardial SB273005 cost biopsy (EMB) specimens using a qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), suggesting a causal link between Lyme disease and DCM in areas in which Lyme disease is endemic. We aimed to study this relationship using a comprehensive molecular analysis detecting BBSL in EMB samples.\n\nWe performed a comprehensive histopathological,
immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular analysis targeting cardiotropic viruses and BBSL in EMB specimens of 41 individuals with recent-onset DCM and 15 controls with end-stage coronary artery disease. Specifically, quantitative PCR and electron microscopy of EMB specimens were employed. In addition, autoantibodies and manifestation of autoimmune diseases were evaluated in both groups. Individuals with recent-onset DCM presented more frequently with myocardial BBSL persistence as compared with the control group (24 vs. 0, P 0.035). In contrast, the prevalence of parvovirus B19 and cytomegalovirus was similar in both groups. Sequence analysis of borrelial DNA revealed the following genospecies: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in three patients (30), Borrelia afzelii in two patients (20), and Borrelia garinii in four patients (40), the results being inconclusive in one case. BBSL-positive DCM patients had a higher prevalence of organ-specific autoimmune diseases in comparison with the remaining DCM patients (50 vs. 16, P 0.030).
Performance measures included graft patency, complications, time to first cannulation, and hemostasis times after needle withdrawal.\n\nResults: All patients were of Asian origin (mean age 57 years, range 29-78). Diabetes mellitus was the most common cause of renal failure (52.9%). There were no systemic or local Selleckchem DAPT reactions to the graft. Five patients (29.4%) died due to medical complications unrelated to the device. There was 1 pseudoaneurysm, 3 infected grafts that subsequently thrombosed, and 1 primary thrombosis associated with thrombophilia. One venous stenosis needed balloon angioplasty. Primary and secondary patency rates at 6 months were
72.7% and 81.8%, and at 12 months, 54.5% and 72.7%, respectively. Postimplantation vascular access needs were met entirely by the graft in every instance and prevented the need for venous catheters. Fifty-six percent were accessed within 8 days, the earliest being 48 hours. Finally, all arterial punctures and
98% of venous punctures had sealed in less than 5 minutes, with two thirds sealing off within 3 minutes selleck of needle withdrawal.\n\nConclusion: The electrospun polycarbonate-urethane graft is safe in humans, permits early access obviating the need for venous catheters, and has equivalent patency to other prosthetic grafts at 1 year.”
“BACKGROUND Night blood pressure (BP) predicts patient outcomes. Variables associated with night BP response to antihypertensive agents have not been fully evaluated in essential hypertension. METHODS We sought to measure night BP responses to hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), atenolol (ATEN), and combined therapy using ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring in 204 black and 281 white essential
hypertensive patients. Initial therapy was randomized; HCTZ and ATEN once daily doses were doubled after 3 weeks and continued for 6 more weeks with the alternate medication added for combined therapy arms. ABP was measured at baseline and after completion of each drug. Night, day, and night/day BP ratio responses (treatment – baseline) were compared in race/sex subgroups. RESULTS Baseline night systolic BP and diastolic BP, and night/day ratios were greater in blacks than whites (P smaller than 0.01, all comparisons). Night BP responses to ATEN were absent and night/day IWR-1-endo datasheet ratios increased significantly in blacks (P smaller than 0.05). At the end of combined therapy, women, blacks, and those starting with HCTZ as opposed to ATEN had significantly greater night BP responses (P smaller than 0.01). Variables that significantly associated with ATEN response differed from those that associated with HCTZ response and those that associated with night BP response differed from those that associated with day BP response. CONCLUSIONS In summary, after completion of HCTZ and ATEN therapy, women, blacks, and those who started with HCTZ had greater night BP responses.
In this study, we examine climate-conflict relationships using a geographically disaggregated approach. We consider the effects of climate change to be both local and national in character, and we use a conflict database that contains 16,359 individual geo-located violent events for East Africa from 1990 to 2009. Unlike previous studies that relied exclusively on political and economic controls, we analyze the many geographical
factors that have been shown to be important in understanding the distribution and causes of violence while also considering yearly and country fixed effects. For our main climate indicators at gridded 1 degrees resolution (similar to 100 km), wetter deviations from the precipitation norms decrease the risk of violence, whereas drier and normal periods show no effects. The relationship between temperature and conflict shows that much warmer than normal temperatures raise the risk of violence, whereas average learn more and cooler temperatures have no effect. These precipitation and temperature effects are statistically significant but have modest influence in terms of predictive power in a model with political, economic, and physical geographic predictors.
Large variations in the climate-conflict relationships are evident between the nine countries of the study HKI-272 region and across time periods.”
“OBJECTIVE: Duke University Health System (DUHS) generates annual antibiograms combining adult and pediatric data. We hypothesized significant susceptibility differences exist for pediatric isolates and that distributing these results would alter antibiotic choices.\n\nMETHODS: Susceptibility rates for Escherichia coli isolates from patients aged <= 12 years between July 2009 and September 2010 were compared with the 2009 DUHS
antibiogram. Pediatric attending and resident physicians answered case-based vignettes about children aged 3 months and 12 years with urinary tract infections. Each vignette contained 3 identical scenarios with no antibiogram, the 2009 DUHS antibiogram, and a pediatric-specific antibiogram provided. Effective antibiotics exhibited >80% in vitro susceptibility. Frequency of antibiotic selection was analyzed by using descriptive statistics.\n\nRESULTS: Rabusertib datasheet Three hundred seventy-five pediatric isolates were identified. Pediatric isolates were more resistant to ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and less resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate and ciprofloxacin (P < .0005 for all). Seventy-five resident and attending physicians completed surveys. In infant vignettes, physicians selected amoxicillin-clavulanate (P < .05) and nitrofurantoin (P < .01) more often and TMP-SMX (P < .01) less often with pediatric-specific data. Effective antibiotic choices increased from 68.6% to 82.2% (P = .06) to 92.5% (P < .01) across scenarios. In adolescent vignettes, providers reduced TMP-SMX use from 66.2% to 42.6% to 19.0% (P < .01 for both).
35 mg/g). This difference was mainly because of the accumulation of liver triglycerides in the oxaliplatin group. CONCLUSIONS:
The current results indicated that C57BL/6 mice receiving weekly oxaliplatin can be used as a model for CASH. Oral FABAC therapy reduced the development of CASH in animals that received oxaliplatin. To the authors’ knowledge, this report is the first description of a model and a potential preventive treatment for CASH. Cancer 2010;116:251-5. (C) 2070 American PXD101 manufacturer Cancer Society.”
“To assess the activity of ceftolozane, a novel oxyimino-cephalosporin, in comparison with ceftazidime and piperacillin/tazobactam against a multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain using a murine model of pneumonia.\n\nQuantitative bacteriology, survival, histological examination, myeloperoxidase activity, proinflammatory cytokine levels in lungs and endothelial permeability were evaluated to determine the effects of ceftolozane and comparators on P. aeruginosa-induced pneumonia.\n\nAfter 48 h of treatment, ceftolozane reduced the bacterial load by 34 log(10) cfu/g of lung. Systemic dissemination
of the pulmonary infection and development of lung damage were inhibited in all -lactam-treated animals. P. aeruginosa-induced pneumonia led to elevated concentrations of tumour necrosis factor-, interleukin (IL)-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 in the lungs. While the levels of proinflammatory cytokines decreased following ceftazidime and piperacillin/tazobactam selleck therapy, NVP-LDE225 ceftolozane exhibited increased concentrations of IL-1 and MIP-2 after 24 h of infection, resulted in significantly increased levels of recruited neutrophils within the infected lung without increasing lung endothelial permeability.\n\nThese data strongly support ceftolozane as an effective option for the treatment of severe P. aeruginosa respiratory infections by improving the early pulmonary inflammatory response without impairing 48 h post-infection homeostasis.”
“Aims: Considering the sparse information about the clinical utility of the novel immunohistochemical marker ProEx C in histological sections, a decision
was taken to study the pattern of ProEx C expression in normal/benign cervical epithelium (N/B), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL), as well as the association of ProEx C expression with human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes.\n\nMethods: 100 cervical samples, including 21 N/B cervices, 16 LGSILs, 61 HGSILs and two cervical invasive carcinomas, were obtained from conisation and hysterectomy. Surgical specimens were arranged in three tissue microarrays and stained for ProEx C. Ninety-three samples were HPV genotyped. Genotyping was performed by DNA amplification and hybridisation with genotype-specific probes on a low-density DNA array.\n\nResults: ProEx C-positive expression in more than the lower third of the epithelium was observed in 14.3% of N/B, 62.