Education The primary goal, is to increase knowledge about the pr

Education The primary goal, is to increase knowledge about the properties of medications and awareness of the patient’s role in managing medication. At a minimum, educational interventions should include printed information about,

the basic properties of mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and antidepressants, such as their purposes, dosages and instructions, and factors that, affect medication effectiveness. Coupled with medication-related Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical education, the causes and consequences of bipolar disorder, and particularly useful to draw parallels to other chronic medical illnesses such as diabetes. Education should also strive to highlight, the personal impacts of the illness, in order to make information more salient to the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical individual. A useful method of increasing personal awareness of bipolar disorder symptoms is to have participants complete mood and life charts. Motivational interviewing The goal of motivational enhancement interventions is to increase the probability of behavior change (ie, taking medications consistently), by highlighting the advantages of adherence, developing strategies to counteract the drawbacks, and, in general, increasing participant activation in developing a treatment plan. A useful tool is the “decisional

Obeticholic Acid price balance” Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical activity, which solicits perceived benefits and drawbacks of taking Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical medications, a technique commonly employed in motivational interviewing.68 To address the primary drawback of side effects, the use of a side-effect tracking form may assist in recognizing side effects, and subsequently a personalized plan can be developed to counteract chronic side effects. For example, goal-setting with respect to behavioral strategies to counteract weight gain or fatigue can be employed.69 Compensatory skills training To reduce the amount of effortful cognitive processing in daily adherence Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical behaviors, interventions encourage consistent medication taking habits and by simplifying the

act of organizing medications. Interventions in this category are primarily intended to address unintentional nonadherence. A wide variety of strategies are available to increase the ease of taking medications, including medication tracking forms and external reminders/tools (eg, pillboxes, electronic medication through reminders). These external cues are best coupled with behavioral strategies that facilitate recalling medication, including pairing activities with medication taking, developing routines around medication taking, and placing cues in the environment to trigger medication-taking behavior. It is vital that these strategies be personalized, and that the emphasis is on making the process of medication taking easier and less effortful.

One would hope that, by starting from the beginning, the central

One would hope that, by starting from the beginning, the central issues will become clearer to the student or clinician interested in the topic. As such, this piece is not a comprehensive review, so it is recommended that readers explore several related reviews for a more thorough analysis.3-5 For those interested in a detailed historical account see refs 11 and 1211,12. The present piece will be especially useful to readers interested in a broad understanding of how the concept of the find more default network arose and how its discovery relates to contemporary research emphases. Origins of discovery

and implications The default network was discovered serendipitously when investigators began noticing that specific, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical reproducible brain regions were more active during passive control tasks than during active tasks targeted by the experimenters.6,7 In many instances,

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical responses in the passive (control) tasks were not reported, or were reported with minimal discussion. In one of our first studies of memory we noticed that a broad network of regions was active in the passive control task, during which participants simply fixated a crosshair. However the network was Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical paradoxically less active in the targeted task, in which participants generated words.13 In an insightful anticipation of later work on the default network, Andreasen et al observed that passive tasks showed activation in regions that were also active when individuals recalled information from episodic memory.8 In an intentionally ironic twist, they labeled the passive “rest” condition “Random Episodic Silent Thinking” and suggested that “free-ranging mental activity (random episodic memory) produces

large activations in association cortex and may reflect Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical both active retrieval of past experiences and planning of future Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical experiences.” They further argued that the regions involved were specifically regions of association cortex that “are more highly developed (ie, comprise a larger portion of the brain volume) in human beings than in nonhuman primates or other animals, have the most complex columnar cortical organization, and are the last to myelinate. Apparently, when the brain/mind thinks in a free and unencumbered fashion, it uses its most human and complex parts” (p1583). The manner in which the default network was initially identified has ADP ribosylation factor had a lasting impact on how we think about its function and discuss the phenomena associated with the network. In typical task settings, the default network is most active in passive control tasks where the experimenter’s demands required are minimized. The observation that the default network is active in passive tasks has led to a split in ideas about its functions. In one class of ideas, the network is seen as playing a role in the exploratory, unfocussed state that takes place during passive tasks.

To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare the effect o

To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare the effect of 3% saline (HS) and conivaptan intervention for the management of hyponatremia. Subjects and Methods In this single-center retrospective study, we compared the efficacy of HS and conivaptan in achieving hyponatremia treatment goals according to expert guidelines.4 Inclusion criteria consisted of patients hospitalized at TMH in Houston, Texas, with computerized provider Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical order entries (CPOE) for intravenous HS or conivaptan.

Upon approval by TMH Institutional Review Board, the research team retrieved CPOE for HS and conivaptan from January 2009 through November 2010 (Figure 1). Of the total 731 CPOE identified, 310 were unique to single patients during a single hospitalization; of these, 117 were followed by administration of HS or conivaptan. Review of records from the excluded 193 patients revealed that administration of either HS or conivaptan was held after a pretreatment measurement of [Na+] showed an increase toward normal value (Figure Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 1). Figure 1. Flow diagram of patient identification, exclusion, and analysis.C: conivaptan; Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical DDAVP: 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin; HS: 3% saline. Data including demographics, clinical presentation

(e.g., postoperative state), clinically Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Library estimated volume status, medications known to cause hyponatremia, comorbid conditions, and suspected presence of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) on clinical grounds as a cause of the patient’s hyponatremia were collected by chart review. Also retrieved were [Na+] at baseline and, when available, within 4, 12, 24, and 48 hours (± 1 hour) after the initiation of HS or conivaptan. All 49 patients analyzed had Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical follow-up measurements of [Na+] within the expected 4, 12, 24, and 48 hour time frames. Over-correction was based on hyponatremia treatment guidelines4 and defined as exceeding

the change in [Na+] of 4 mEq/L at 4 hours, 12 mEq/L at 24 hours, or 18 mEq/L at 48 hours after initiation of therapy. Data analysis was performed using Intercooled Stata Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical version 9.2 (Stata Corporation, College Station, Texas). Statistical significance was defined PD184352 (CI-1040) as P <0.05. Categorical data, summarized as percentages, were compared with the chi-square test. For quantitative data, 2-tailed Student’s t-test was performed. In cases of non-normally distributed data, Wilcoxon rank-sum analysis was performed. Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation. Results Patient demographics are summarized in Table 1. The mean age for the HS group was 69.3 years and 77.7 years for the conivaptan group. Caucasians comprised the majority of the study’s population in both groups. In the HS group, 76% of patients were euvolemic, as were 66% in the conivaptan group. The remaining patients in each group were hypervolemic; no hypovolemic patients were identified.

In a recent case series from central Arizona, 32% of patients dev

In a recent case series from central Arizona, 32% of patients developed new or recurrent hematologic abnormalities after initial control [31]. Finally,

the panelists noted that the safety of a “watchful waiting” strategy is wholly dependent on the quality and frequency of follow-up observations, which may vary depending on local hospital resources and staffing patterns. In light of the above information, the practice of administering maintenance antivenom therapy is controversial. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Historically, some centers recommend maintenance therapy universally, while others do so in the minority of cases [26,39,40]. Given the wide variation in clinical practice patterns the panelists concluded that a “one size fits all” or simplified decision rule was inappropriate for the question of whether to administer Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical maintenance therapy. The panel recommended consultation with a selleck inhibitor regional poison center or local snakebite treatment expert to assist in the determination of whether to give maintenance antivenom therapy. Management of patients with apparent dry bites or minor envenomations (boxes 9 and 10) Approximately 20 – 25% of

crotaline snakebites are “dry”; no venom effects develop [18]. Although the majority of patients with apparent dry bites have not been envenomated, some patients who initially present with a wound but no other signs of envenomation (i.e. no swelling, ecchymosis, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical vesicle formation, or hematologic or systemic venom effects) develop signs of envenomation after a latent period of minutes to hours [53]. In addition, some patients present with apparent minor venom effects (ecchymosis, swelling, and/or vesicles limited to

the immediate area of the bite site without systemic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical venom effects). All panel members reported having treated patients who presented in this manner and subsequently developed significant progressive signs of envenomation. To our knowledge, there are no data to describe the typical time course or define a “safe” period of observation Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical after which the risk of delayed-onset venom effects is minimal, although the best available evidence suggests that 6 hours is not long enough in many cases [53]. Cost-benefit implications are largely unknown. The panel members recommended that, in general, patients with apparent non-envenomation be observed in a health care facility for Tolmetin at least 8 hours, with repeat platelet count, prothrombin time, fibrinogen, and hemoglobin measurement prior to discharge. Anecdotal evidence suggests some patients, such as children and those with lower extremity envenomations, may develop significant tissue effects more than 8 hours after an apparent dry bite, and therefore may require longer observation. Patients with apparently minor envenomation and no evidence of progression should be observed longer, in the range of 12 – 24 hours.

6 The CIDI has very high reliability and validity, and can be use

6 The CIDI has very high reliability and validity, and can be used even by nonspccialists without time-consuming diagnosis. Another advantage is that this new nosography has brought psychiatry closer to medical science in general. #Selleck BMS-754807 randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# Mental disorders are no longer vaguely defined expressions of craziness, but are specific, well-defined disorders. This leads to a better acceptance by patients and their families. Having a PD is no longer a psychological defect, a personal weakness, or the result of a neurotic development. This very important point has been confirmed

by Wittchen et al7 in the Munich Study: anxiety disorders almost never improve spontaneously. In the past, these disorders were called “minor” and thus they were rarely Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical specifically treated, unless severe complications occurred. We have shown that 80% of the people presenting with such so-called minor disorders did not receive any treatment, with the consequence that they

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical still present the disorder 14 years later, with severe implications for everyday life. Even those few receiving treatment did not recover completely. It is thus essential to help patients and their families accept the illness and live with residual symptoms. Epidemiology of anxiety disorders: general studies A number of epidemiological studies have shown that anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and important causes of functional impairment. Several previous Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical studies Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical conducted in the USA, UK, and Germany have highlighted these problems. The Epidemiological Catchment Area (ECA) survey8 is the largest and most famous

psychiatric epidemiological study carried out in a general population of five American states (Connecticut, Maryland, Missouri, North Carolina, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and California). Here, we will refine ourselves to discussing the ECA results on neurotic and anxiety disorders. The other anxiety disorders were evaluated in only some of the study areas. The prevalence of PTSD was 1% in Saint Louis (0.5% in men, 1.3% in women; 3.5% in crime victims, 20% in Vietnam veterans). GAD has a 12-month prevalence of 2.3% in Durham, NC (0.8% in men and 2.6% in women) and is not comorbid with another psychiatric disorder in two cases out of three. As in most other investigations, the ECA study stresses the high rate of comorbidity of neurotic and anxiety disorders, whether they are associated with other anxiety disorders or first other psychiatric disorders. The 1-month prevalence data for anxiety disorders are presented in Table I. Table I. One-month prevalence data for anxiety disorders as evaluated by the Epidemiological Catchment Area (ECA) study.7 PD, panic disorder; OCD, obsessive-compulsive disorder. Another important epidemiological survey, the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS), was the first study to be carried out in a representative sample of the North American population; in contrast, the ECA survey only covered five states.

27 The authors reported

that, cingulate hypometabolism m

27 The authors reported

that, cingulate hypometabolism may represent an important adaptive response to depression and failure of this response may underlie poor outcome.27 Impact of TRD TRD is associated with extensive use of depression-related and general medical services and poses a substantial economic burden. A naturalistic, retrospective Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical analysis of medical claims data by Crown and colleagues found that treatment-resistant Patients were at least twice as likely to be hospitalized (general medical and depression related) and had at least 12% more outpatient visits.15 Treatment resistance was also associated with use of 1.4 to 3 times more psychotropic medications (including antidepressants). Patients in the hospitalized TRD group had over 6 times the mean total medical costs of non-TRD Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical patients (US$ 42 344 versus US$ 6512) and their total depression-related costs were 19 times greater than those of patients in the comparison group (US$ 28 001 versus US$ 1455).15 These findings emphasize the need for early identification and effective long-term maintenance strategies for TRD. Approaches in the management of TRD General principles The general principles of the

management of TRD are outlined in Table I. Table I. General principles for the management of treatment-resistant depression. Antidepressant treatment strategies Increasing the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical dose of antidepressant Increasing the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical dose of antidepressant is a common strategy for patients who have not responded to an adequate trial with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI).28 In patients who had not responded to fluoxetine 20 mg/day, Fava and colleagues showed that raising the dose of fluoxetine to 40 to 60 mg/day was significantly more effective than adding desipramine 25 to 50 mg/day

or lithium 300 to 600 mg/day29 No guidelines exist regarding the adequate duration of higher-dose antidepressant treatment, but 6 weeks Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical is likely to be sufficient.30 Following response, treatment at the same dose can be maintained for 6 to 9 months, followed by tapering of the dose; if the patient, has a history of recurrent or chronic depression, then a longer duration of treatment must be considered.30 Augmentation strategies Augmentation involves adding another agent to an ongoing antidepressant treatment that, has failed. Lithium augmentation is a oxyclozanide commonly used strategy to treat resistant depression, with a long history of small controlled trials and anecdotal reports on benefits of lithium augmentation.31,32 Thyroid hormone augmentation of antidepressants has been reported since the late 1960s. Altshuler and colleagues summarized the early literature on triiodothyronine (T3), mainly small studies carried out many years ago, demonstrating an acceleration of time to response to antidepressants.

However, age of onset was not available in this study and the cas

However, age of onset was not available in this study and the cases had a mixture of symptom severity. The possible phenotypic heterogeneity, if likely linked to genetic heterogeneity,

could reduce statistical power to detect association signals. We found #Selleckchem CHIR99021 randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# heterogeneous PS effects across quantiles of depression, consistent with the hypothesis that some loci have worse effects on individuals with other types of environmental or genetic vulnerability (Williams 2012). Because we Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical use a genome-wide PS, environmental factors such as adverse life events or lack of social support seem most likely. The larger effect of PS on high- versus low- depression quantiles may support the hypothesis that the “missing

heritability” is attributable to epistatic or environmental interactions, such that some genotypes are relevant only in the context of other risk factors. Nearly all twin studies rely on twins raised together; in such studies, the variance attributable to Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical shared environmental factors modifying genetic effects is implicitly included in heritability estimates (Kamin and Goldberger 2002). Gatz et al. (1992) found little additive genetic variance Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical among twin pairs reared apart, suggesting the likely importance of environment and gene–environment interactions. Alternatively, heterogeneous PS effects across quantiles of the phenotype might represent noninterval scaling of the phenotype or modeling error. Regardless of whether the result is interpreted as evidence for gene–environment interactions,

the finding of heterogeneous Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical effect sizes indicates that mean effects estimated in linear regression model may understate the overall Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical impact of genetic risk. Potential limitations of our study include generalizability of the NHS blood sample, imprecision in depression assessment, and different GWA platforms available in each subcohort. Combing multiple GWAS results across cohorts with different genotyping platforms and QC filters is now common when studying the genetics of complex diseases such as depression and schizophrenia, because large sample MRIP sizes are necessary (Schizophrenia Psychiatric Genome-Wide Association Study Consortium 2011; Hek et al. 2013). The QC has been carefully and extensively examined internally, and the allele frequencies are similar across NHS subcohorts. In summary, combining longitudinal phenotype assessments from multiple measurements and different polygenic scoring approaches did not substantially improve genetic prediction of depression. Common SNPs explained 0.2% or less of depression variance via polygenic scoring analysis. Many studies now suggest depression does not result from either purely genetic or environmental influences, but rather from the intersection of the two (Dunn et al. 2011).

There is no a published guideline available to comment on the con

There is no a published guideline available to comment on the contraindications of this procedure.4 We think that this practice deserves high quality studies

to examine therapeutic benefits and contraindications of the technique using short-and long-term follow up procedures. Standing with the aid of a tilt table in ICU setting might have a reasonable therapeutic role in the early rehabilitation and prognosis of the patients. Therefore, this procedure can be considered as an alternative way of improving the patients’ overall condition as well as ventilation. Conclusion The Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical finding of the present study suggest that the use of tilt table can enhance the respiratory function of an ICU patients, and shortens the rate of his/her recovery Conflict of Interest: None declared
Dear Editor, Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and peripheral artery intervention Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical are two substantial methods of revascularization with approved efficacy in the treatment of coronary and peripheral artery disorders. Given the existence of a large number of interventional cardiologists and catheterization labs in Iran, the present study analyzed the background and current status of PCI, peripheral artery

intervention, and other cardiovascular interventions in Iran based on PubMed-indexed publications. PubMed searches revealed a total of 17 original articles and 26 case reports relevant Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to the cardiovascular interventions had been published until the end of 2010. Such a low number of PubMed-indexed original articles on the PCI, peripheral artery intervention and other cardiovascular interventions indicate that the status of publications in these fields is not satisfactory in Iran. The status of publication of original articles on PCI with acute and midterm follow-ups

by investigator in Iran is promising, however, efforts should be made to conduct and publish studies involving long-term follow-ups. The only Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical PubMed-indexed original article compared PCI with drug-eluting stents versus bare metal stents, showed that the rate of major adverse cardiac events and restenosis was similar to previous studies.1 Only one PubMed-indexed article from Iran reported results in regards to interventions on proximal left anterior descending and left circumflex coronary arteries.2 The outcomes of that study were comparable to those of the previous ones. As far as we 4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase know, various techniques of angioplasty involving proximal part of coronary arteries and left main trunk lesions are being performed in Iran, but internationally-indexed data bases are silent on Iranian experience. Whether or not the Iranian experience can’t compete with internal international experiences needs to be investigated. Percutaneous coronary interventions are being performed on a daily basis in various cities of Iran, mainly the capitals of provinces.

So Veegum (2%) and tragacanth (0 75%) were used in all blend for

So Veegum (2%) and tragacanth (0.75%) were used in all blend formulations, but CMC and PVP in different formulations were changed. Nag in 2005 studied the stability and flow behavior of barium sulphate suspensions in the presence of various polymers such as PVP. Results showed that PVP had no significant effect on sedimentation volume [10]. F and n values

of the suspensions of different structural vehicles and flocculating agent are shown in Table 2. The suspending agents alone were not able to suspend particles, while their combination showed BLZ945 manufacturer excellent results. According to the results of the ease Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of redispersion, formulations F8 and F11 with the concentration of 0.04% NaCl were not able to disperse ideally. Table 2 The value of sedimentation volume (F) and ease of redispersion (n) for acetaminophen suspension in different formulations

(mean ± SD n = 4). The values of N as an indicator for defining the type of flow for different formulations are presented in Table 3. In Newtonian fluids, shear stress and shear rate are directly proportional (N = 1), so the rheogram will be Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical a straight line, while, in non-Newtonian fluids, there is not a direct relationship between them (N > 1) [17]. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Dilatant systems are inverse of that possessed by pseudoplastic systems (N < 1) [4]. According to the values of N, all formulations showed pseudoplastic behavior. The important parameter for predicting flow behavior of liquid dispersion is the area of the hysteresis Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical loop, which is shown in Table 3. Evaluation of hysteresis area revealed that all of the formulations except formulations F8 and F11 had thixotropy behavior. It is generally accepted that greater hysteresis area leads to stronger thixotropic property, and a good suspension should have a relatively high pseudoplastic behavior and some degree of thixotropy [18]. Table 3 Indicator for defining the type of rheological behavior (N), hysteresis loop, and pseudoplastic viscosity at 30rpm (η30) in different formulations. In formulations F9–F11 all suspending agents were used. The value of hysteresis loop and apparent viscosity

in formulation F9 without NaCl were 279.9dyne·cm·min−1 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and 564.05cp, respectively (P < 0.05). At low concentrations of NaCl (0.02%), the value of hysteresis loop and apparent viscosity of Resminostat formulation F10 increased (Figure 1 and Table 3) (P < 0.05). In formulation F11 with high concentration of NaCl (0.04%), the apparent viscosity of suspension was drastically rinsed so that the instrument could not show any value for torque. Figure 1 Rheograms and thixotropy of acetaminophen suspensions in formulations (a) F7, (b) F10, and (c) F13. Regarding above mentioned results, presence of NaCl in formulations F10 and F11 increased the apparent viscosity in comparison with formulation F9 (without NaCl). Suspension F6 is the same as F9, but it did not contain CMC in its formulation. The value of hysteresis loop and apparent viscosity of F6 was 286dyne·cm·min−1 and 290.93cp, respectively.

faecalis in the blood and to reveal its resistance type to vancom

faecalis in the blood and to reveal its resistance type to vancomycin.

˚ Material and Methods We used a standard strain VRE (PTCC 1447, and PTCC 1237) prepared by the division of Bacteria and Fungi Collections, Iranian Institute of Industrial and Scientific Researches, Tehran, Iran). A suspension 108 cfu/ml was made in normal saline by adding some single colonies, which were grown on TSA by adjusting its optical density to half McFarland solution and checking their absorbance in 700 nm with spectrophotometer. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Then, diluted solutions with different bacterial contents (106 cfu/ml, 104 cfu/ml and 102 cfu/ml) were made by diluting it in normal saline. They are used for inoculating to blood. By adding certain amount of each bacterial solution to certain amount of defibrinated sheep blood, some blood samples with different bacterial Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical content (104 cfu/ml, 103 cfu/ml, 102 cfu/ml, 101 cfu/ml, 5 cfu/ml and zero as control) were prepared. Ten-milliliter-samples of each dilution were prepared to be used in ten

experiments of each of the PCR and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical routine assays. For routine assay, we used initial enrichment procedure for each specimen by inoculating to TSB and this website incubation at 37˚C for 24 hours, passage to TSA and incubation in 37˚C for more 24 hours, identifying by catalase test, PYR test, growth on TSA with 6.5% Nacl, and hydrolysis Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical esculin

in the presence of bile on BEA. Differentiation of E. faecalis from E. faecium was done by three tests including ability to use pyruvate, fermentation of sorbitol, and reduction of tellurite.15,24 For screening VRE, we used BEA including Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 6 µg/ml vancomycin.10,15,24 The extraction of DNA was achieved using the following procedure. Transferring 100 µl of each blood sample to a 2 ml ependorf vial contain 400 µl sterile double distilled H2O and incubation in 37˚C for 30 minutes, adding 500 µl red cell lysis buffer (NAHCO3 10 mM, NH4CL 0.155M, pH=7) and incubation at 37˚C for one hour, centrifugation at 10,000 rpm for 15 minutes, discarding the supernatant, adding 200 µl lysis buffer Amisulpride for bacteria (Tris 10 mM, sucrose 0.3 M, MgCl2 5 mM) to the pellet with 10 µl lysozyme (0.1 mg/ml, Sinagen, Lot: MR7735) and incubation at 37˚C for one hour, adding 4 µl proteinase K (900 u/ml, Fermentaze, Lot: 00022411) and incubation at 65˚C for one hour, extraction of DNA by standard phenol-chloroform method and precipitation of DNA by cold isopropanol. PCR mix was prepared as 3 µl of 10x PCR buffer, 2 µl of MgCl2 (25 mM), 0.5 µl of dNTP 10 mM, 100 pM of each primer, 0.2 µl DNA pol (5 u/µl), 2 µl DNA, and double distilled H20 to final volume of 25 µl. Special features of primers that were used in this study are shown in table 1.