(C) 2008 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved “
“Multiple syste

(C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Multiple system atrophy is a sporadic, progressive, neurodegenerative disease characterized by an oligodendroglial accumulation of alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn). The mechanisms underlying the oligodendroglial accumulation of alpha-syn in the brains of patients with multiple system atrophy have attracted a great ACP-196 clinical trial deal of interest, given the primarily neuronal role reported for this protein. We examined the interactions between neuronal and oligodendroglial

alpha-syn in the progeny of crosses between parental transgenic (tg) mouse lines that express alpha-syn either under the oligodendroglial-specific myelin-basic protein promoter (MBP1-h alpha-syn tg) or under the neuronal platelet-derived growth factor promoter (PDGF-h alpha-syn tg). Our results demonstrate www.selleckchem.com/products/dabrafenib-gsk2118436.html that progeny from the cross [h alpha-syn double (dbl) tg mice] displayed a robust redistribution of alpha-syn accumulation, with a relocalization from a neuronal or a mixed neuronal/oligodendroglial alpha-syn expression to a more oligodendroglial pattern in both the neocortex and the basal ganglia that closely resembled the parental MBP-h alpha-syn tg line. The h alpha-syn

dbl tg mice also displayed motor deficits, concomitant with reduced levels of tyrosine hydroxylase and augmented neuropathological alterations in the basal ganglia. These results suggest that the central nervous system milieu in the h alpha-syn dbl tg mice favors an oligodendroglial accumulation of alpha-syn. This model represents an important tool to examine the interactions between neuronal

and oligodendrocytic Sucrase alpha-syn in diseases such as multiple system atrophy. NeuroReport 23:259-264 (C) 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“A substantial body of evidence has accumulated linking an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). A multitude of novel risk factors related to decreased kidney function might interact with the renal and systemic immune systems involved in renal injury and repair to participate in accelerated atherogenesis (Immune inflammation-Renal injuryAtherosclerosis-the IRA Paradigm). In this review, we will discuss several of these novel risk factors and present the potential for the role of the immune-inflammatory system in accelerated atherosclerosis of kidney disease. Kidney International (2011) 80, 453-463; doi:10.1038/ki.2011.178; published online 22 June 2011″
“Cognitive neuroscience research relies, in part, on homologies between the brains of human and non-human primates. A quandary therefore arises when presumed anatomical homologues exhibit different functional properties. Such a situation has recently arisen in the case of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). In humans, numerous studies suggest a role for ACC in detecting conflicts in information processing.

At 28 days, the primary outcome was death among patients who did

At 28 days, the primary outcome was death among patients who did not have check details a response to a corticotropin test.

Results: Of the 499 patients in the study, 233 (46.7%) did not have a response to corticotropin (125 in the hydrocortisone group and 108 in the placebo group). At 28 days, there was no significant difference in mortality between patients in the two study groups who did not have a response to corticotropin (39.2% in the hydrocortisone

group and 36.1% in the placebo group, P=0.69) or between those who had a response to corticotropin (28.8% in the hydrocortisone group and 28.7% in the placebo group, P=1.00). At 28 days, 86 of 251 patients in the hydrocortisone group (34.3%) and 78 of 248 patients in the placebo group

(31.5%) had died (P=0.51). In the hydrocortisone group, shock was reversed more quickly than in the placebo group. However, there were more episodes of superinfection, including new sepsis and septic shock.

Conclusions: Hydrocortisone did not improve survival or reversal of shock in patients with septic shock, either overall or in patients who did not have a response to corticotropin, although hydrocortisone hastened BLZ945 manufacturer reversal of shock in patients in whom shock was reversed. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00147004.).”
“Recently, there has been a rapid gain of interest in the availability, applicability, and integration of different types of spatial data for environment and health issues. The INSPIRE Directive (Directive 2007/2/EC) aims at providing better and easily accessible spatial information in Europe for the formulation and implementation

of community policy on the environment by triggering the creation of a European spatial information infrastructure that delivers integrated spatial information services to potential users. Human biomonitoring (HBM) significantly contributes to the already existing data on environment and health because of its specific nature of providing information on the internal dose of chemicals rather than their mere presence in different environmental compartments. SSR128129E However, due to the intrinsic nature of HBM data, a number of issues need to be dealt with if HBM data are to be used to its full capacity in a geographic information systems (GIS) environment and within the INSPIRE directive. The current article highlights some of these issues, and discusses a number of options to improve the geographical relevance of HBM data for their optimal use within the INSPIRE Directive framework. The main aim of this publication is to illustrate that HBM has a significant contribution to make to the INSPIRE Directive, although some kind of data aggregation will be necessary to protect individual privacy.


Injectable diacetylmorphine was more effec


Injectable diacetylmorphine was more effective than oral methadone. Because of a risk of overdoses and seizures, diacetylmorphine maintenance therapy should be delivered in settings where prompt medical intervention is available. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00175357.)”
“Viral infections often produce double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), which in turn triggers potent antiviral responses, including the global repression of protein synthesis mediated by protein kinase R (PKR) click here and 2′-5′ oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS). As a consequence, many viruses have evolved genes, such as those encoding dsRNA-binding proteins, which counteract these pathways. Human cytomegalovirus

(HCMV) encodes two related proteins, pTRS1 and pIRS1, which bind dsRNA and can prevent activation of the PKR and OAS pathways. HCMV mutants lacking either IRS1 or TRS1 replicate at least moderately well in cell culture. However, as we demonstrate in the present study, an HCMV mutant lacking both IRS1 and TRS1 (HCMV[Delta I/Delta T]) has a severe replication defect. Infection with HCMV[Delta I/Delta T] results in a profound inhibition of overall and viral protein synthesis, as well as increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2 alpha). The vaccinia virus E3L gene can substitute for IRS1 or TRS1, enabling HCMV replication.

Despite the accumulation of dsRNA in HCMV-infected cells, the OAS pathway remains inactive, even in HCMV[Delta I/Delta T]-infected cells. These results suggest that PKR-mediated phosphorylation CFTRinh-172 of eIF2 alpha is the dominant Isotretinoin dsRNA-activated pathway responsible for inhibition of protein synthesis and HCMV replication in the absence of both IRS1 and TRS1 and that the requirement for evasion of the PKR pathway likely explains the necessity for IRS1 or TRS1 for productive infection.”

62-year-old woman with osteoarthritis presents with a 7-month history of progressively worsening left hip pain radiating to the groin, 8 months after undergoing total left-hip arthroplasty. The pain has not responded to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Physical examination reveals a sinus tract overlying her left hip. Her leukocyte count is 8000 per cubic millimeter, and the C-reactive protein (CRP) level is 15.5 mg per liter. A radiograph shows loosening of the prosthesis at the bone-cement interface. Synovial-fluid aspirate shows 15×10(3) cells per cubic millimeter (89% neutrophils); cultures of an aspirate from the hip grow Staphylococcus epidermidis. How should her case be managed?”
“The mature arenavirus envelope glycoprotein GPC is a tripartite complex comprising a stable signal peptide (SSP) in addition to the receptor-binding (G1) and transmembrane fusion (G2) subunits. We have shown previously that SSP is a key element in GPC-mediated membrane fusion, and that GPC sensitivity to acidic pH is modulated in part through the lysine residue at position 33 in the ectodomain loop of SSP (J. York and J. H. Nunberg, J. Virol.

Mono-, di-, and triphosphorylated phosphatidylinositol phosphate

Mono-, di-, and triphosphorylated phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) species as well as high concentrations of phosphatidylserine selleck compound (PS) supported similar levels of flotation. A mutation that increases the overall charge of RSV MA also enhanced Gag membrane binding. Contrary to previous reports, we found that high concentrations of PS, in the absence of PIPs, also strongly promoted HIV-1 Gag flotation. Taken together, we interpret

these results to mean that RSV Gag membrane association is driven by electrostatic interactions and not by any specific association with PI(4,5)P(2).”
“Lymphedema after cancer treatment is a common clinical challenge, but curative treatment options are rarely available. Lymph node transfer is a novel technique in lymphedema surgery. Lymphatic tissue can be transferred as a vascularized free flap, but in this technique

the lymphatic vascular network is expected to regrow spontaneously. Recently, we have learned how to regulate the growth of lymphatic vessels in experimental models. We envision that lymph node transfer should be combined with lymphatic growth factor therapy in the treatment of lymphedema patients. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 2010;20:249-253) (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that when the N-terminus of interferon-alpha 2b (IFN-alpha 2b) was directly fused of to the C-terminus

of human serum albumin (HSA), the resultant fusion protein (HSA-IFN-alpha Oligomycin A nmr 2b) was heterogeneous (migrated as doublets on non-reducing SDS-PAGE) and unstable (prone to form covalent aggregates). The heterogeneity and instability of HSA-IFN-alpha 2b was ascribed to the structural disturbance between HSA and IFN-alpha 2b. To alleviate such structural disturbance, linkers with different lengths (1, 2, 5, 10 amino acid residues) or different conformation (flexible linker (FL, GGGGS), rigid linker (RL, PAPAP) or helix-forming linker (HL, AEAAAKEAAAKA)) were inserted between HSA and IFN-alpha 2b. It was demonstrated that linker with 5 amino acid residues was sufficient to separated HSA and IFN-alpha 2b effectively, as fusion protein of with this linker migrated as single band on non-reducing SDS-PAGE. The fusion proteins with FL, RL and HL linkers were purified to homogeneity with yields of 20%, while the recovery rate of HSA-IFN-alpha 2b was only 10%. Accelerated thermal stress tests showed that in contrast to HSA-IFN-alpha 2b, fusion proteins with FL, RL and HL linkers were free of aggregates after stored at 37 degrees C for 10 days. Stability tests also revealed that fusion proteins with FL, RL and HL linkers had different susceptibility to hydrolysis, with HSA-RL-IFN-alpha 2b being the least susceptible to hydrolysis at pH 6 and 7.

Object retrieval is a prefrontal cortical-mediated task, which is

Object retrieval is a prefrontal cortical-mediated task, which is likely to capture attention and response inhibition.

Materials and methods The ability to retrieve a food reward from a clear box selleck chemical with an open side positioned in various orientations was assessed in adult male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

Results Rolipram (0.003-0.03 mg/kg, intramuscular [i.m.]) and sildenafil (0.3-3 mg/kg, i.m.) dose-dependently increased correct first reaches during difficult trials, reaching significance at 0.01 and 1 mg/kg, respectively. For both drugs, correct reaches were increased approximately

20%; that is, performance was improved from similar to 50 to similar to 70% correct.

Conclusions Both rolipram and sildenafil improved object retrieval performance, Salubrinal thus demonstrating the cognition-enhancing effects of PDE inhibition on a prefrontal task of executive function in monkeys.”
“Endosomal trafficking is an essential cellular process involved in the transport of proteins such as integrins, hormone receptors, growth factor receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, and lipids (e.g. sphingomyelin). Regulation of this process is highly complex and involves Arf GAPs, SNAREs, Rab proteins, Rho GTPases and the actin cytoskeleton. In this article, we focus on the intracellular targeting of the Src family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases (nRTKs), and the role of endosomes

in the delivery of nRTKs to the plasma membrane. Furthermore, GPX6 we discuss the role of the actin cytoskeleton in this process and consider how endosome-regulated

intracellular trafficking affects cell signalling.”
“The purpose of this study was to investigate the microglia-driven apoptosis and the A beta deposits triggered generation of new microglial cells in the neocortex of TgCRND8 mice. Three- and seven-month-old TgCRND8 mice, displaying an early and widespread amyloid deposition, respectively, were used. In 7-month-old TgCRND8 mice the A beta-associated glial reaction was accompanied by an intense immunoreactivity of both TNF-alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase, increased immunoreactivity of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and a decrease in levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2.Cortical and hippocampal neurons of TgCRND8 mice displayed higher immunoreactivity and higher nuclear expression of the transcription factor NF-kB than controls. It is possible that such an increase could represent a defence/compensatory response to degeneration. These findings indicate that A beta deposits activate brain-resident microglia population and astrocytes, and induce overproduction of inflammatory mediators that enhance pro- and anti-apoptotic cascades. In both 3- and 7-month-old TgCRND8 mice apparent gliogenesis was present in the vicinity of A beta plaques in the neocortex, indicating that microglia have a high proliferative rate which might play a more complex role than previously acknowledge.

The strain YES with the empty vector was used as control (PDF 45

The strain YES with the empty vector was used as control. (PDF 459 KB) References

1. Roeder A, Kirschning CJ, Rupec RA, Schaller M, Weindl G, Korting HC: Toll-like receptors as key mediators in innate antifungal immunity. Med Mycol 2004, 42:485–498.PubMedCrossRef 2. Miceli MH, Diaz JA, Lee SA: Emerging opportunistic yeast infections. Lancet Infect Dis 2011, 11:142–151.PubMedCrossRef 3. Ruhnke M: Epidemiology of Candida albicans infections and role of non-Candida-albicans yeasts. Curr Drug Targets 2006, 7:495–504.PubMedCrossRef 4. Horn DL, Neofytos D, Anaissie EJ, Fishman JA, Steinbach WJ, Olyaei AJ, Marr KA, Pfaller MA, Chang CH, Webster KM: Epidemiology and outcomes of candidemia in 2019 patients: data from the prospective antifungal therapy alliance registry. Clin Infect Dis 2009, 48:1695–1703.PubMedCrossRef 5. Vandeputte P, Ferrari S, Coste buy Nirogacestat AT: Antifungal resistance and

new strategies to control fungal infections. Int J Microbiol 2012, 2012:713687.PubMed 6. Myoken Y, Kyo T, Sugata T, Murayama SY, Mikami Y: Breakthrough fungemia caused by fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans with decreased susceptibility EPZ-6438 solubility dmso to voriconazole in patients with hematologic malignancies. Haematologica 2006, 91:287–288.PubMed 7. Chauhan N, Calderone R: Two-component signal transduction proteins as potential drug targets in medically important fungi. Infect Immun 2008, 76:4795–4803.PubMedCrossRef Plasmin 8. Yamada-Okabe T, Mio T, Ono N, Kashima Y, Matsui M, Arisawa M, Yamada-Okabe H: Roles of three histidine kinase genes in hyphal development

and virulence of the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. J Bacteriol 1999, 181:7243–7247.PubMed 9. Catlett NL, Yoder OC, Turgeon BG: Whole-genome analysis of two-component signal transduction genes in fungal pathogens. Tucidinostat solubility dmso Eukaryot Cell 2003, 2:1151–1161.PubMedCrossRef 10. Nemecek JC, Wuthrich M, Klein BS: Global control of dimorphism and virulence in fungi. Science 2006, 312:583–588.PubMedCrossRef 11. Kruppa M, Calderone R: Two-component signal transduction in human fungal pathogens. FEMS Yeast Res 2006, 6:149–159.PubMedCrossRef 12. Desai C, Mavrianos J, Chauhan N: Candida albicans SRR1, a putative two-component response regulator gene, is required for stress adaptation, morphogenesis, and virulence. Eukaryot Cell 2011, 10:1370–1374.PubMedCrossRef 13. Bahn YS: Master and commander in fungal pathogens: the two-component system and the HOG signaling pathway. Eukaryot Cell 2008, 7:2017–2036.PubMedCrossRef 14. Maeda T, Wurgler-Murphy SM, Saito H: A two-component system that regulates an osmosensing MAP kinase cascade in yeast. Nature 1994, 369:242–245.PubMedCrossRef 15. Appleby JL, Parkinson JS, Bourret RB: Signal transduction via the multi-step phosphorelay: not necessarily a road less traveled. Cell 1996, 86:845–848.PubMedCrossRef 16.

In a review of the literature concerning the efficacy of commerci

In a review of the literature concerning the efficacy of commercially available CE, Coombes and Hamilton [20] noted that studies supporting the use of CE for improved performance during prolonged endurance exercise frequently included participants exercising after a 12-h fast. Similar conditions were found for the majority of the ~ 1–h duration studies click here cited above in which positive results were found for carbohydrate beverages [2, 4–9, 11–15, 17]. Of the 17 studies reviewed in this current paper, five [3, 6, 10, 16, 18] reported a benefit of CE use for subjects who were not fasted prior to exercise, and 1 of those investigations only included 5 moderately trained participants

[10]. Cyclists [21] and runners [22] who were fed before exercise failed to

show improved performance during 1-h time trials when consuming CE as compared to a sweetened placebo during exercise. Ingesting carbohydrate-rich gels with water before and during runs lasting 75 min also has also not proven effective in improving performance of fed runners [23]. Similarly, the ergogenic effect of a carbohydrate mouth rinse reported in the studies mentioned above has not been confirmed in fed runners [24] or cyclists [25]. Conflicting results and few investigations in which a pre-exercise meal was consumed make it difficult to extrapolate results to individuals who are fed prior to exercise. Given the preceding discussion, it remains unknown whether CE improves performance in recreational eFT508 ic50 exercise bouts lasting ~ 1 h. Non-caloric electrolyte beverages (NCE), similar to the placebos prepared and used in the investigations cited above, may be an appealing alternative to water for exercisers concerned with caloric intake but who prefer flavored beverages over water, potentially increasing fluid intake during and after exercise [26]. However, it is unclear whether a NCE is as efficacious as a CE in improving or maintaining performance in recreational exercise bouts lasting ~ 1 h. Therefore, the purpose Cediranib (AZD2171) of this study was to determine if recreational exercisers, while in a post-prandial

state, would; a) exhibit improved performance in exercise lasting ~ 1 h in duration, b) perceive exercise as less difficult, or c) report lower levels of fatigue, when consuming a CE during exercise compared to a NCE or water (W). It was hypothesized that there would be no differences in performance, mood, or rate of perceived exertion among beverages. Methods Participants Men (n = 23) and women (n = 13) ages 19–30 who reported participating in a minimum of 150 but no more than 450 min of aerobic exercise per week for the previous 3 months volunteered to participate in this study. Thirteen of the thirty-six participants reported that they engaged in indoor or outdoor Niraparib clinical trial cycling (2.3 ± 1.4 times per week).

Our findings could encourage further investigation and developmen

Our findings could encourage further investigation and development of M. anisopliae isolate MAX-2, and attract research interest on the stress tolerance of biocontrol fungi. Methods Solid substrates

Wheat bran substrates with different moisture levels were used in this study. The substrates were sterilized at 121°C for 20 min. Sterile wheat bran without water was used selleck chemical as a dry substrate to test the efficacy of M. anisopliae under desiccation stress. The moisture contents of substrates were adjusted by adding a certain amount of water and heating 5 g of the sterilized substrate at 100°C for 4 h. Moisture content was then calculated using the dry and initial weights. Moisture content of the dry substrate was determined to be 8%. The gradient of the substrates from the initial moisture content was adjusted to 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%. Sterile culture of host insects T. molitor larvae were selected as host insects because they can remain active under desiccation stress, and are easily reared under laboratory conditions. Such

conditions are convenient for testing the virulence of fungal pathogens under desiccation stress. To eliminate the effect of some possible microbes, we cultured the host insects under sterile conditions. T. molitor larvae were washed in sterile water, and the water on the surface was absorbed using sterile filter papers. The cuticles of the larvae were wiped carefully with 75% OSI-906 purchase alcohol cotton balls for seconds and transferred to sterile

filter Pexidartinib in vivo paper to dry in air for 5 min. Sterilized larvae were reared, incubated, and subcultured in sterile glass jars containing the wheat bran substrate with 15% moisture content. Screening of GNE-0877 MAX-2 with the capacity of infecting under desiccation stress M. anisopliae isolates in the experiment M. anisopliae isolates were collected from the arid regions of Yunnan Province in China during the dry season. The efficacy test was conducted in the wet substrate with 30% moisture content at 25°C. The isolates MAC-6, MAL-1, and MAQ-28, whose efficacies showed gradient descent, were chosen as controls to display the efficacy of MAX-2 under desiccation stress. The MAX-2 isolate was from Shangri-la, MAC-6 was from Chuxiong, MAL-1 was from Lanping, and MAQ-28 was from Qujing. Conidial production and inoculation The conidia of M. anisopliae isolates were produced by incubating the fungi on potato dextrose agar plates at 25°C for 14 d. Conidia powder of MAX-2 was obtained from the surface of fungal colonies using a sterile scoop and transferred to a sterile tube (20 mm?×?200 mm). Conidial powder was weighed and mixed with sterile wheat bran substrates. The conidial concentration was adjusted to 5?×?108 conidia/g, and the substrates were cultured at 25°C. The conidial concentration was controlled by adjusting the amount of conidial powder in the substrate, and determined by diluting 1 g of the mixture (conidial powder and substrate) with sterile water.

Virus Res 117:5–16CrossRef Forterre P, Gribaldo S (2007) The orig

Virus Res 117:5–16CrossRef Forterre P, Gribaldo S (2007) The origin of modern terrestrial life. HFSP J 1:156–168CrossRefPubMed Forterre P, Prangishvili D (2009) The great billion-year war between ribosome- and capsid-encoding organisms (cells and viruses) as the major source of evolutionary novelties. Proc NY Acad Sci, 1178:65–77 Forterre P, Brochier C, Philippe H (2002) Evolution of the Archaea. Theor Popul Biol 61:409–422CrossRefPubMed Forterre P, Gribaldo S, Gadelle D, Serre MC (2007) Origin and evolution of DNA topoisomerases. Biochimie 9:427–46CrossRef Garrett

R, Klenk HP (2007) Archaea: evolution, physiology and molecular biology. S63845 Blackwell Häring M, Vestergaard G, Rachel R, Chen L, Garrett RA, Prangishvili D (2005) Virology: independent virus development outside a host. Nature 436:1101–1102CrossRefPubMed Jalasvuori M, Bamford JKH (2008)

Structural co-evolution of viruses and cells in the primordial world. Orig Life Evol Biosph 38:165–181CrossRefPubMed Koonin EV, Senkevich TG, Dolja VV (2006) The ancient Virus World and evolution of cells. Biol Direct 9:1–29CrossRef check details Krupovic M, Bamford DH (2008) Virus evolution: how far does the double beta-barrel viral lineage extend? Nat Rev Microbiol 6:941–948CrossRefPubMed La Scola B, Audic S, Robert C et al (2003) A giant virus in amoebae. Science 299:2033CrossRefPubMed La Scola B, Desnue C, Pagnier P et al (2008) The virophage, a unique parasite of the giant Mimivirus. Nature 455:100–104CrossRefPubMed Lecompte O, Ripp R, Thierry JC, Moras D, Poch O (2002) Comparative analysis of ribosomal proteins in complete genomes: an example of reductive evolution at the domain scale. Nucleic Acids Res 30:5382–5390CrossRefPubMed Pembrolizumab manufacturer Lwoff A (1957) The concept of virus. J Gen Microbiol 17:239–253PubMed Lwoff A (1967) Principles of classification and nomenclature of viruses. Nature 215:13–14CrossRefPubMed Miller S, Krijnse-Locker

J (2008) Modification of intracellular membrane structures for virus replication. Nat Rev Microbiol 6:363–374CrossRefPubMed Miller ES, Kutter E, Mosig G, Arisaka F, Kunisawa T, Rüger W (2003) Bacteriophage T4 genome. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 67:86–156CrossRefPubMed Novoa RR, GW786034 manufacturer Calderita G, Arranz R, Fontana J, Granzow H, Risco C (2005) Virus factories: associations of cell organelles for viral replication and morphogenesis. Biol Cell 97:147–172CrossRefPubMed Pace NR (2006) Time for change. Nature 441:289CrossRefPubMed Pearson H (2008) Virophage’ suggests viruses are alive. Nature 454:677CrossRefPubMed Prangishvili D, Forterre P, Garrett RA (2006) Viruses of the Archaea: a unifying view. Nat Rev Microbiol 4:837–848CrossRefPubMed Prudhomme S, Bonnaud B, Mallet F (2005) Endogenouse retroviruses and animal reproduction. Cytogenet Genome Res 110:353–364CrossRefPubMed Raoult D, Forterre P (2008) Redefining viruses: lessons from Mimivirus.

9 to 3 1 eV) semiconductor [1, 2], is of great interest

9 to 3.1 eV) semiconductor [1, 2], is of great interest #17-AAG randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# for diverse technological applications in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics [3]. Zero-dimensional In2O3 nanoparticles (NPs), with a variety of tunable morphologies ranging from octahedra, hexagons, cubes, to pyramids, are beneficial

as building blocks for indium oxide-based or hybrid transistors [4]. Their remarkably large surface-to-volume ratio and good stability have made them promising materials in gas sensors/biosensors [5, 6], photocatalysis [7], photoelectrochemical cells [8], and ultraviolet photodetectors [9, 10]. Despite the advantages of using this material, In2O3 NP-based devices usually encounter several deficiencies, for instance, low conductivity and poor Selleckchem ACP-196 adhesion. This could decrease the efficiency and stability of the devices. One of the reasons for the low conductivity of In2O3 NP-based devices is due to the weak interconnection between each NP [11, 12]. In this case, the carrier transportation between the In2O3 NPs is inefficient where charge carriers might

be lost at the interface due to recombination or charge delocalization. Meanwhile, the In2O3 NP coating is usually not adhesive, thus making it easier to be scratched from the substrate. Hence, in order to solve these problems, it is crucial to improve the microstructure arrangement of the In2O3 NPs. Several methods such as annealing and plasma treatments have been introduced to improve the structural find more and electrical properties of In2O3 nanostructures [13–15]. A previous report [13] showed an increase in photoconductivity of undoped In2O3 thin films to about 102 (Ω cm)−1 by using a two-step thermal annealing method at an optimum temperature of ≤500°C. More recent research on femtosecond laser annealing of In2O3 nanowire transistors

revealed significant improvements in device performance owing to the reduction in interfacial traps by using the treatment [14]. On the other hand, oxygen plasma treatment [15] serves as an alternative treatment method to improve the surface contact of tin-doped In2O3 for light-emitting devices. By combining rapid thermal annealing and nitrous oxide (N2O) plasma treatment, Remashan et al. [16] demonstrated almost two orders of increment in off current and on/off current ratios of zinc oxide thin film transistors. A significant effort has been devoted to the advancement in synthesis and fabrication of In2O3 NPs using a variety of techniques including laser ablation, electron beam evaporation, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), pulsed laser deposition, sol-gel, and thermolysis [17, 18]. Of those, CVD is capable of high yield production and good crystallinity of In2O3 NPs [19]. The In2O3 NPs synthesized by this method typically have a higher purity level compared to those synthesized by wet chemical methods as the deposition is done under a certain vacuum level.