Results: At the end of the study evidence of urothelial hyperplas

Results: At the end of the study evidence of urothelial hyperplasia was seen in 50% of the pigs in group 1 and in 29% in group 2. Four and 2 cases of cranial stent migration in groups 1 and 2, respectively, were seen at 6 months. Hyperplasia and renal involvement were statistically significantly different between the groups with more damage in group 1 than in group 2.

Conclusions: Hyperplasia was markedly reduced when ureteral peristalsis was inhibited by endoureterotomy

at the area of interaction between the stent and the ureter.”
“Purpose: We investigated Sapanisertib whether analysis of adherence junctions in human detrusor could be used as a diagnostic tool to determine detrusor overactivity.

Materials and Methods: We characterized the protein composition of adherence junctions in the human bladder using cadherin-11 since our group previously found that cadherin-11 could be an integral structural protein of adherence junctions. We obtained a total of 46 biopsies from 23 patients categorized into 4 groups, including 5 who were normal, and 6 each with neurogenic disease with detrusor overactivity, bladder outlet obstruction with detrusor overactivity and idiopathic detrusor overactivity. Specimens were processed to study cadherin-11 expression using combined immunohistochemical and immunogold electron microscopy techniques.

Cadherin-11 expression was semiquantitatively analyzed and correlated to muscle PD173074 research buy fascicle structure and collagen in the extracellular spaces.

Results: Immunogold labeling showed highly specific cadherin-11 expression at adherence junctions in detrusor smooth muscle cells. During immunohistochemical staining a wide variety of cadherin-11 expression and fascicle structure was found in the same specimen. No correlation was noted between detrusor overactivity and cadherin-11 expression. However, cadherin-11

seemed to be down-regulated with intercellular space widening and collagenosis.

Conclusions: Cadherin-11 is an integral structural protein of the adherence junction. Defects in the overactive detrusor are highly punctate. Quantitative Branched chain aminotransferase analysis of adherence junctions using biopsy cannot replace urodynamic evaluation as a predictor of detrusor overactivity in the human bladder.”
“Purpose: Bladder problems clinically present early in life as birth defects that often lead to kidney failure and late in life as overactive bladder, incontinence and related disorders. We investigated the transcriptome of mouse bladder mucosa at juvenile and adult stages by microarray to identify the pathways associated with normal, healthy growth and maturation. We hypothesized that understanding these pathways could be key to achieving bladder regeneration or reawakening normal function in the elderly population.

Materials and Methods: RNA was isolated from the mucosa at 3, 6, 20 and 30 weeks postnatally. Affymetrix (R) Mouse 430 v2 arrays were used to profile the expression of approximately 45,000 genes.

These, hydrophobic properties provide interesting possibilities w

These, hydrophobic properties provide interesting possibilities when purification of macromolecules is concerned. In aqueous micellar two-phase systems, based on surfactants, the water soluble hydrophobins are concentrated inside micellar structures and, thus, distributed to defined aqueous phases. This, one-step purification is attractive particularly when large-scale production of recombinant proteins is concerned. In the present study the hydrophobin HFBI of Trichoderma reesei was expressed as an N-terminal fusion with chicken avidin in baculovirus infected insect cells. The intracellular distribution of the recombinant fusion construct was

analyzed by confocal microscopy and the protein subsequently Dibutyryl-cAMP in vivo purified from cytoplasmic extracts in an aqueous micellar two-phase system by using a non-ionic surfactant. The results show that hydrophobin and an avidin fusion LY2874455 in vivo thereof were efficiently expressed in insect

cells and that these hydrophobic proteins could be efficiently purified from these cells in one-step by adopting an aqueous micellar two-phase system. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Cellular microarrays are powerful experimental tools for high-throughput screening of large numbers of test samples. Miniaturization increases assay throughput while reducing reagent consumption and the number of cells required, making these systems attractive for a wide range of assays in drug discovery, toxicology, stem cell research and potentially therapy. Here, we provide an overview of the emerging technologies that can be used to generate cellular microarrays, to and we highlight recent significant advances in the field. This emerging and multidisciplinary approach offers new opportunities for the design and control of stem cells in tissue engineering and cellular therapies and promises to expedite drug discovery in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries.”
“An optimal measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) should minimize the number of blood draws, and reduce procedural invasiveness and the burden to study personnel and cost, without sacrificing accuracy. Equations have been proposed

to calculate GFR from the slow compartment separately for adults and children. To develop a universal equation, we used 1347 GFR measurements from two diverse groups consisting of 527 men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study and 514 children in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children cohort. Both studies used nearly identical two-compartment (fast and slow) protocols to measure GFR. To estimate the fast component from markers of body size and of the slow component, we used standard linear regression methods with the log-transformed fast area as the dependent variable. The fast area could be accurately estimated from body surface area by a simple parameter (6.4/body surface area) with no residual dependence on the slow area or other markers of body size.

The data indicate the high feasibility of employing these mollusk

The data indicate the high feasibility of employing these mollusks to serve as practical biosentinels of waters contaminated with sewage in coastal and island communities. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Interleukin-2 (IL-2) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Studies from our lab have shown that adult IL-2 knockout (KO) mice exhibit septohippocampal pathology and related behavioral deficits. Compared to IL-2 wild-type (WT) mice, IL-2 KO mice have a marked and selective loss of septal cholinergic neurons that occurs between the third postnatal

Pexidartinib mw week and adulthood. Given that the development of septal neurons is completed by embryonic day 17 and that IL-2 KO mice exhibit peripheral autoimmunity that develops progressively post-weaning, our data and others led us to postulate that the loss of septal neurons in adult IL-2 KO mice is due to selective autoimmune neurodegeneration that coincides with increasing levels of peripheral autoimmunity. CH5183284 mouse Thus, the present study tested the hypotheses: (1) that T cells selectively target the septum, and; (2) that T lymphocyte infiltration to the septum would correlate with peripheral autoimmune disease. We quantified CD3(+) T cells in the septum, hippocampus, and cerebellum of IL-2 KO and IL-2 WT

mice at ages ranging from 2 to 14 weeks. T cells infiltrated the brains of IL-2 deficient 5-Fluoracil mice, but were not selective for the septum. Brain

T lymphocyte levels in IL-2 KO mice correlated positively with the degree of peripheral autoimmunity. We did not detect CD19(+) B lymphocytes, IgG-positive lymphocytes or IgG deposition indicative of autoantibodies in the brains of IL-2 KO mice. Further study is needed to understand how IL-2 deficiency-induced autoimmune T lymphocytes interact with endogenous brain cells to alter function and promote disease. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.”
“To date, all the isolates of Cyprinid herpesvirus type-3 (CyHV3) responsible for serious outbreaks in carps Cyprinus carpio have been found to be very similar or identical on the basis of DNA sequences of a few reference genes. However, two genetic lineages (U/I and J) are distinguished by full-length genome sequencing. Two molecular markers presenting genetic variations were targeted for developing a duplex PCR assay able to distinguish CyHV3-U/I from CyHV3-J while avoiding DNA sequencing. The method was validated on a series of 42 samples of infected carps from France, The Netherlands and Poland collected from 2001 to 2008. Among these samples, both the U/I and J genotypes were identified, but also a third genotype representing a genetic intermediate between U/I and J for one of the two molecular markers.

The importance of such timing dependence has not yet been fully e

The importance of such timing dependence has not yet been fully explored for tDCS. Here, we describe the results of a series of behavioural experiments in healthy controls to determine the importance Wortmannin manufacturer of the relative timing of tDCS for motor performance.

Application of tDCS during an explicit sequence-learning task led to modulation of behaviour in a polarity specific manner: relative to sham stimulation, anodal tDCS was associated with faster learning and cathodal tDCS with slower learning. Application of tDCS prior to performance of the sequence-learning task led to slower learning after both anodal and cathodal tDCS. By contrast, regardless of the polarity of stimulation, tDCS had no significant effect on performance of a simple reaction time task. These results are consistent with the idea that anodal tDCS interacts with subsequent motor learning in a metaplastic manner and suggest that anodal stimulation eFT-508 manufacturer modulates cortical excitability in a manner similar to motor learning. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All

rights reserved.”
“The mammalian olfactory system is well established for its remarkable capability of undergoing experience-dependent plasticity. Although this process involves changes at multiple stages throughout the central olfactory pathway, even the early stages of processing, such as the olfactory bulb and piriform cortex, can display a high degree of plasticity. As in other sensory systems, this plasticity can be controlled by centrifugal inputs from brain regions

known to be involved in attention and learning processes. Specifically, both the bulb and cortex receive heavy inputs from cholinergic, noradrenergic, BCKDHB and serotonergic modulatory systems. These neuromodulators are shown to have profound effects on both odor processing and odor memory by acting on both inhibitory local interneurons and output neurons in both regions.”
“A range of psychological theories have been proposed to account for the experience of auditory hallucinations and delusions in schizophrenic patients. Most influential theories are those implicating the defective self-monitoring of inner speech. Some recent studies measured response bias independently of self-monitoring and found the results inconsistent with the defective self-monitoring model, but explained by an externalizing response bias. We aimed to investigate the role of attentional bias in external misattribution of source by modulating participant’s endogenous expectancies. Comparisons were made between patients with paranoid schizophrenia (N=23) and matched healthy controls (N=23) who participated in two different versions of an audio-visual task, which differed based upon level of the cue predictiveness.

By contrast, semantic evaluations of the same attitude items elic

By contrast, semantic evaluations of the same attitude items elicited less parietal activity, like that elicited by Not You cues, which only access semantic memory. In accord with hemodynamic results, attitude evaluations and autobiographical retrievals also produced overlapping patterns of slow potential (SP) activity from 500 to 900 ms preceding the response over left and right inferior frontal, anterior medial frontal and occipital brain areas. Significantly Dibutyryl-cAMP different pat:terns of SP activity were elicited in these locations for semantic evaluations and Not You cues. Taken

together, the results indicate that attitude representations are stored in episodic memory. Retrieval timing varied as a function of task, with earlier retrievals in both evaluation conditions relative to those in the autobiographical condition. The differential roles and timing of memory retrieval in evaluative judgment and memory retrieval tasks are discussed. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”

To characterize the bacterial community of taberna, an alcoholic traditional beverage from the Southern part of Mexico produced by the fermentation of the coyol palm LY2874455 in vivo sap (Acrocomia aculeate).

Methods and Results:


16S rDNA libraries were constructed from metagenomic DNA extracted during the fermentation process at 0, 60 and 108 h. A total of 154 clones were sequenced, and 13, 10 and nine unique sequences were found at each sampling time. At the onset of the fermentation, Zymomonas mobilis, Fructobacillus spp., Pantoea agglomerans and other Gammaproteobacteria were detected. After 60 h, lactic acid bacteria were found and 30% of clones in to the library were related to Lactobacillus nagelii, L. sucicola and L. sp. By the end of the experiment, i.e. after 108 h, the bacterial community included Z. mobilis, Lact. nagelii and Acetobacter pasteurianus.



results suggest that Z. mobilis population represented an important proportion of the bacterial community (60-80%), as well as the lactobacilli during the fermentation process. The bacterial diversity was low and decreased as the fermentation progressed.

Significance and Impact of the Study:

This culture-independent study suggests that Z. mobilis and lactobacilli play an important role in the alcoholic fermentation of the taberna beverage.”
“Humans move to the beat of music. Despite the ubiquity and early emergence of this response, some individuals report being unable to feel the beat in music. We report a sample of people without special training, all of whom were proficient at perceiving and producing the musical beat with the exception of one case (“”Mathieu”"). Motion capture and psychophysical tests revealed that people synchronized full-body motion to music and detected when a model dancer was not in time with the music.

SWME had a sensitivity ranging from 57% (95% confidence interval

SWME had a sensitivity ranging from 57% (95% confidence interval [CI], 44% to 68%) to 93% (95% CI, 77% to 99%), specificity ranging JQ1 mw from 75% (95% CI, 64% to

84%) to 100% (95% CI, 63% to 100%), positive predictive value (PPV) ranging from 84% (95% CI, 74% to 90%) to 100% (95% CI, 87% to 100%), and negative predictive value (NPV) ranging from 36% (95% CI, 29% to 43%) to 94% (95% Cl, 91% to 96%).

Conclusions: There is great variation in the current literature regarding the diagnostic value of SWME as a result of different methodologies. To maximize the diagnostic value of SWME, a three site test involving the plantar aspects of the great toe, the third metatarsal, and the fifth

metatarsals should be used. Screening is vital in identifying DPN early, enabling earlier intervention and management to reduce the risk Of ulceration and lower extremity amputation. (J Vasc Surg 2009;50: 675-82.)”
“Although a number of secondary injury factors are known to contribute to the development of morphological injury and functional deficits following traumatic brain injury, accumulating evidence has suggested that neuropeptides, GSK872 order and in particular substance P, may play a critical role. Substance P is released early following acute injury to the CNS as part of a neurogenic inflammatory response. In so doing, it facilitates an increase in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier and the development of vasogenic Pyruvate dehydrogenase lipoamide kinase isozyme 1 edema. At the cellular level, substance P has been shown to directly result in neuronal cell death; functionally, substance P has been implicated in learning and memory, mood and anxiety, stress mechanisms, emotion-processing, migraine, emesis, pain, and seizures, all of which may be adversely affected after brain injury. Inhibition of post-traumatic substance P activity, either by preventing release or by antagonism of the neurokinin-1 receptor, has consistently

resulted in a profound decrease in development of edema and marked improvements in functional outcome. This review summarizes the current evidence supporting a role for substance P in acute brain injury.”
“Although progress is being made in the development of new clinical treatments for traumatic brain injury (TBI), little is known about whether such treatments are effective in older patients, in whom frailty, prior medical conditions, altered metabolism, and changing sensitivity to medications all can affect outcomes following a brain injury. In this review we consider TBI to be a complex, highly variable, and systemic disorder that may require a new pharmacotherapeutic approach, one using combinations or cocktails of drugs to treat the many components of the injury cascade.

These cells express the intermediate filament nestin, commonly co

These cells express the intermediate filament nestin, commonly considered an NSC marker. NSC can be derived as neurospheres from human embryonic stem cells (hESC). The mechanisms of cellular programming that hESC undergo during differentiation remain obscure. To investigate the commitment process S63845 of hESC during directed neural differentiation, we compared the nuclear proteomes of hESC and hESC-derived neurospheres. We used 2-D DIGE to conduct a quantitative comparison of hESC and NSC nuclear proteins and detected 1521 protein spots matched across three gels. Statistical

analysis (ANOVA n = 3 with false discovery correction) revealed that only 2.1% of the densitometric signal was significantly changed. The ranges of average

ratios varied from 1.2- to 11-fold at a statistically significant p-value <0.05. MS/MS identified 15 regulated proteins previously shown to be involved in chromatin remodeling, mRNA processing and gene expression regulation. Notably, three members of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein family (AUF-1, and FBP-1 and FBP-2) register a 54, 70 and 99% increased expression, highlighting them as potential markers for NSC in vitro derivation. By contrast, Cpsf-6 virtually disappears with differentiation with an 11-fold drop in NSC, highlighting this protein as a novel marker for undifferentiated ESC.”
“Status epilepticus (SE) induced by pilocarpine or kainate is associated with yet not systemically investigated astrocytic and vascular injuries. To investigate their possible association with neuronal damage, the changes in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), laminin and neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN) immunoreactivities CBL0137 mouse were

analyzed in rats treated with pilocarpine (380 mg/kg) or kainate (15 mg/kg), and receiving diazepam (20 mg/kg) after 10 min of SE. A different group of rats was injected with endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the caudate putamen to reproduce the changes in GFAP and laminin immunoreactivities associated with ischemia. Focal loss of GFAP Pembrolizumab mw immunostaining was accompanied by increased laminin immunoreactivity in blood vessels, in all the examined groups. Regression analysis revealed a significant (P < 0.01) relationship between astrocytic lesion and increased laminin immunoreactivity in the piriform cortex (Pir) of both pilocarpine (R-2 = 0.88) and kainate (R-2 = 0.94) groups of treatment. A significant relationship (P < 0.01; R-2 = 0.81) was also present in the cornu Ammonis 3 (CA3) hippocampal region of pilocarpine-treated rats. At variance, neuronal and glial lesions were significantly related (P < 0.05, R-2 = 0.74) only in the substantia nigra of pilocarpine-treated rats. The ratio between areas of GFAP and laminin changes of immunoreactivity in the ET-1 group was similar to those found in pilocarpine- and kainate-treated rats in specific brain regions, such as the hippocampal CA3 subfield, Pir and the anterior olfactory nucleus.

Our experiments suggest that MyD88 restricts WNV by inhibiting re

Our experiments suggest that MyD88 restricts WNV by inhibiting replication in subsets of cells and modulating expression of chemokines that regulate immune cell migration into the central nervous system.”
“The aim of this study was to evaluate the intracellular

cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) changes induced by activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors in cultured hippocampal neurons after repeated brief episodes of hypoxia. To investigate what kinds of ionotropic glutamate receptors are involved we used specific agonists for AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors. Measurements of [Ca(2+)](i) in cultured hippocampal neurons were made by imaging Fura-2AM loaded hippocampal cells. In the rat hippocampal slice method, field potential measurements in CA1 pyramidal neurons were used. The main result of our study is that brief hypoxic Fludarabine mouse episodes progressively depress the [Ca(2+)](i) increases induced by agonists of AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptors in cultured hippocampal neurons. An effectiveness of this depression is increased from the first hypoxic episode to the third one. Hypoxic preconditioning effect is observed during 10-20 min after termination of hypoxic episode and depends on [Ca(2+)](i) response amplitudes to agonists before hypoxia. In contrast to AMPA receptor activation, NMDA receptor activation

before hypoxia induce the spontaneous [Ca(2+)](i) increase about 3 min after each hypoxic episode. These spontaneous [Ca(2+)](i) increases may be an indicator of the development of posthypoxic hyperexcitability in hippocampal neurons. Our results suggest that brief hypoxia-induced depression of the glutamate receptor-mediated [Ca(2+)](i) responses contributes to the development of rapid hypoxic preconditioning

in hippocampal CA1 neurons. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative not agent of KS, the second most common AIDS-associated malignancy. KSHV expresses at least 18 different mature microRNAs (miRNAs) during latency. To identify cellular targets of KSHV miRNAs, we have analyzed a previously reported series of microarrays examining changes in cellular gene expression in the presence of KSHV miRNAs. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) receptor (TWEAKR) was among the most consistently and robustly downregulated genes in the presence of KSHV miR-K12-10a (miR-K10a). Results from luciferase assays with reporter plasmids containing the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of TWEAKR suggest a targeting of TWEAKR by miR-K10a. The mutation of two predicted miR-K10a recognition sites within the 3′ UTR of TWEAKR completely disrupts inhibition by miR-K10a. The expression of TWEAKR was downregulated in cells transfected with miR-K10a as well as during de novo KSHV infection.

Conclusion: Esophagectomy after prior anti-reflux surgery is chal

Conclusion: Esophagectomy after prior anti-reflux surgery is challenging, but the stomach is usually a suitable conduit for esophageal replacement. Patients with a history of anti-reflux surgery who undergo esophagectomy are at significantly increased risk for postoperative complications, anastomotic leak, selleck and need for reoperation. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2010; 139: 969-75)”
“The present study examined the role of dopamine and D(1)-and D(2)-like dopamine receptors in ventrolateral orbital cortex (VLO)-evoked anti-hypersensitivity in a rat model of neuropathic pain, as well as the possible underlying mechanisms.

Results showed that microinjection of apomorphine [(R(-)-apomorphine hydrochloride)], a non-selective dopamine receptor agonist,

into the VLO attenuated spared nerve injury (SNI)-induced mechanical allodynia in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was completely blocked by the D(2)-like dopamine receptor antagonist S(-)-raclopride(+)-tartrate salt (1.5 mu g), but was enhanced by the D(1)-like dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390 (R(+)-SCH-23390 hydrochloride, 5.0 mu g). The attenuating effect of apomorphine on mechanical allodynia was mimicked by application of the D(2)-like dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole [((-)-quinpirole hydrochloride, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mu g)]. In addition, microinjection of larger doses (10 and 20 mu g) of SCH23390 SCH 900776 into the VLO significantly attenuated allodynia. Furthermore, microinjections of GABA(A) receptor antagonists, bicuculline [(+)-bicuculline, (S), 9(R)] and picrotoxin (200 and 300 ng for both drugs), into the VLO attenuated mechanical allodynia. A small dose. of bicuculline or picrotoxin (100 ng) resulted in increased quinpirole (0.5 mu g)-induced anti-allodynia. In contrast, GABA(A) receptor agonists, muscimol hydrochloride (250 ng) or THIP [(2,5,6,7-retrahydroisoxazolo(5,4-c)pyridine-3-ol

Flucloronide hydrochloride, 1.0 mu g)], blocked quinpirole (2.0 mu g)-induced attenuation. These results suggest that the dopaminergic system is involved in mediating VLO-induced anti-hypersensitivity, activation of D(2)-like dopamine receptors, and inhibition of D(1)-like receptors resulting in anti-hypersensitivity. In addition, the mechanisms of GABAergic disinhibition might be involved in D(2)-like receptor mediating effects in neuropathic pain. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: Video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy remains controversial. We compared outcomes from participants in a randomized study comparing lymph node sampling versus dissection for early-stage lung cancer who underwent either video-assisted thoracoscopic or open lobectomy.

To understand the diagnostic and prognostic implications future <

To understand the diagnostic and prognostic implications future GDC-0941 in vitro emphasis should be placed on the link between genetic abnormalities, and clinical course, therapeutic response and ultimate outcome.”
“Posture is often affected in Parkinson’s disease. Postural abnormalities belong to the motor axial involvement. Generally, postural dysfunction induces clinical impairment at the latest stages of the disease, except in late-onset idiopathic Parkinson’s disease

and in atypical parkinsonian syndromes. Posture may be affected in its orientation component (Istooped posture, camptocormia, Pisa syndrome) or in its balance component (Iloss of postural reflexes). Overall, postural impairment is poorly improved by levodopa, which implies that it is unlikely due to the nigrostriatal I-BET-762 concentration dopaminergic denervation. Several methods of investigation

have been proposed but are generally not available in clinical practice. Medical treatment and deep brain stimulation (IDBS) of the subthalamic nucleus or globus pallidus pars interna are less efficient on axial than on distal motor signs. The pedonculopontine nucleus seems promising as a new target for DBS in combination with the subthalamic nucleus. Physical therapy is, in most cases, the best way to improve postural dysfunction. (c) 2008 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.”
“Purpose: Although genital tactile stimulation is regarded as a precursor to sexual arousal and a recognized initiator of central nervous system arousal, specific afferent neural pathways transmit sensory

stimuli of arousal, beginning at the epithelial level on the clitoris and following the course of arousal stimuli through the central nervous system. Limited knowledge exists of the pathway from the cutaneous receptors of nerves originating in the epithelial tissue of the clitoris and continuing to spinal cord afferents. Such information may contribute to an understanding of sexual arousal, particularly in female vertebrates. We further defined the neural pathways and mechanisms responsible for arousal originating in the epithelium of the clitoris as well as related Glutamate dehydrogenase neural pathways to the spinal cord in a murine model.

Materials and Methods: We performed a comprehensive review of the published relevant clinical and histological material from human and nonhuman vertebrate studies. In 29 adult female C57B1/6 mice the distribution of pelvic nerves and vessels was mapped. Gross dissection of 4 female mice was facilitated by resin injection of the vascular system in 2. Neuronal tracing was performed in 25 mice that received clitoral injection of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase into the clitoris and were sacrificed after 72 to 96 hours. The spinal cord and periclitoral tissue were removed and fixed. Immunohistochemistry was performed.