In subjects with an undetectable VL, several factors have been demonstrated to be associated with an increased rate of viral rebound. These include younger age [5–8], black ethnicity [6,7], starting
highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (i.e. three or more ART drugs) in earlier calendar years [5,7], low adherence [8,9], prior mono/dual ART [5,6,8,10,11], ART regimen changes , having started ART with a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) regimen , having been on an ART regimen of more than three drugs , high pre-ART VL , low pre-ART CD4 cell count , the use of particular antiretroviral drugs [6,11] and previous treatment interruptions . Low www.selleckchem.com/products/LY294002.html rates of viral rebound are predicted by increased duration of
viral suppression [5,7,10] and a lower number of previous regimens failed . The level of adherence to ART is one of the most critical factors in achieving viral suppression [13–17], avoiding viral rebound [14,18–21], increasing CD4 cell counts [13,18,22] and minimizing the risk of death [23–26] in HIV-infected people on ART. From a public health perspective, achievement and maintenance of high adherence in treated populations are crucial for prevention of transmission of drug-resistant virus . Interestingly, buy SCH772984 it is known that VL suppression can, in some individuals at least, be achieved and maintained with moderate levels of adherence, especially with ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI)- and NNRTI-based regimens [28–32]. However, despite its importance, there is currently no readily available measure of treatment adherence ordinarily used in routine clinical practice, nor is there one for comparison of adherence levels across
different populations. At a clinical level, such a measure could be particularly useful in allowing clinicians to monitor patients for risk of viral rebound. A range of adherence measures have been assessed in the last decade, and each has its own strengths and limitations. Microelectronic monitoring systems (MEMS) are very accurate, but can be intrusive for patients and are quite expensive. Patient self-report, although easy to implement, tends to have high specificity for identifying poorly Oxalosuccinic acid adherent patients but often has low sensitivity [33,34]. Therapeutic monitoring of plasma drug concentrations, which is unlikely to be feasible for routine use at every clinic visit, measures a combination of adherence, drug absorption and metabolism, and is sensitive only for short periods (plasma levels of antiretroviral drugs can be within therapeutic ranges with as little as a few days of high adherence preceding the therapeutic drug monitoring). Among the methods that do not require patient involvement, drug pick-up-based approaches have been demonstrated to be a valid measure of ART adherence [35–38].