In subjects with an undetectable VL, several factors have been de

In subjects with an undetectable VL, several factors have been demonstrated to be associated with an increased rate of viral rebound. These include younger age [5–8], black ethnicity [6,7], starting

highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (i.e. three or more ART drugs) in earlier calendar years [5,7], low adherence [8,9], prior mono/dual ART [5,6,8,10,11], ART regimen changes [5], having started ART with a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) regimen [5], having been on an ART regimen of more than three drugs [5], high pre-ART VL [5], low pre-ART CD4 cell count [5], the use of particular antiretroviral drugs [6,11] and previous treatment interruptions [12]. Low rates of viral rebound are predicted by increased duration of

viral suppression [5,7,10] and a lower number of previous regimens failed [7]. The level of adherence to ART is one of the most critical factors in achieving viral suppression [13–17], avoiding viral rebound [14,18–21], increasing CD4 cell counts [13,18,22] and minimizing the risk of death [23–26] in HIV-infected people on ART. From a public health perspective, achievement and maintenance of high adherence in treated populations are crucial for prevention of transmission of drug-resistant virus [27]. Interestingly, buy SCH772984 it is known that VL suppression can, in some individuals at least, be achieved and maintained with moderate levels of adherence, especially with ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI)- and NNRTI-based regimens [28–32]. However, despite its importance, there is currently no readily available measure of treatment adherence ordinarily used in routine clinical practice, nor is there one for comparison of adherence levels across

different populations. At a clinical level, such a measure could be particularly useful in allowing clinicians to monitor patients for risk of viral rebound. A range of adherence measures have been assessed in the last decade, and each has its own strengths and limitations. Microelectronic monitoring systems (MEMS) are very accurate, but can be intrusive for patients and are quite expensive. Patient self-report, although easy to implement, tends to have high specificity for identifying poorly Oxalosuccinic acid adherent patients but often has low sensitivity [33,34]. Therapeutic monitoring of plasma drug concentrations, which is unlikely to be feasible for routine use at every clinic visit, measures a combination of adherence, drug absorption and metabolism, and is sensitive only for short periods (plasma levels of antiretroviral drugs can be within therapeutic ranges with as little as a few days of high adherence preceding the therapeutic drug monitoring). Among the methods that do not require patient involvement, drug pick-up-based approaches have been demonstrated to be a valid measure of ART adherence [35–38].

Since the first report of ESBLs in 2002 (Chanawong

et al

Since the first report of ESBLs in 2002 (Chanawong

et al., 2002), blaCTX-M has been predominant in mainland (Yu et al., 2007; Liu et al., 2009). In this multicentre study, the prevalence of ESBL production in K. pneumoniae has been demonstrated to be about 40%. Of 158 ESBL-producers, the isolates harboring ESBL genes and blaCTX-M-14 were 94.3% and 49.4%, respectively, and were shown to increase 10% and 9% to those in another large-scale study (Yu et al., 2007), respectively. The proportion of blaCTX-M increased 12% compared to the percentage (72.3%) described in a report of southern China three years ago (Liu et al., 2009) and doubled the percentage reported nine years ago (Li et al., 2003). Because the usage of plasmid-based amplification method in this study and the potential Deforolimus false-negative products

owing to the unbinding on some novel bla, the detection of β-lactamase genes see more may have been underestimated. Although there are some differences in the source of the isolates in our study as compared to the studies mentioned above, our results clearly suggest the increasing prevalence of blaCTX-M in K. pneumoniae in China. CTX-M-type ESBLs exhibit powerful activity against cefotaxime and ceftriaxone but generally not against ceftazidime, and several variants with enhanced ceftazidimase activity have been reported (Poirel et al., 2002; Bonnet et al., 2003; most Rossolini et al., 2008). In this study, it was observed that the isolates harboring CTX-M-15 or CTX-M-27 alone exhibited higher resistance rates to ceftazidime and aztreonam than that in subgroup CTX-M-14 without other ESBLs

(Table 2). Further, a high percentage of isolates harboring blaCTX-M-27 demonstrated the MDR phenotype. To our knowledge, this is the first study about the high prevalence of CTX-M-27 in Enterobacteriaceae in China. This warrants for an active surveillance to monitor these resistant bacteria. The overall resistance rates to the tested β-lactam antimicrobial agents were over 30% except for cefepime, piperacillin/tazobactam, and cefotetan in this study. As shown in Table 2, only 9.3% isolates harboring CTX-M-14 alone showed resistance to cefepime, but 50% isolates harboring CTX-M-15 exhibited resistance (P < 0.01), and a 100% resistance rate when CTX-M-15 coexisted with other ESBLs. Nevertheless, piperacillin/tazobactam show only 10.1% resistance rate in vitro, although the proportion increased to 26.7% when the isolates contained two types of ESBLs(blaCTX-M + blaSHV)(Table 1). Several clinical intervention studies also supported that piperacillin/tazobactam may contribute to preventing the ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae outbreaks (Lee et al., 2007; Tangden et al., 2011). These properties highlight the value of piperacillin/tazobactam as empirical therapy for infections by suspected organisms possessing a single ESBL (especially the blaCTX-M).

White-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) are an excellent species

White-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) are an excellent species in which to investigate the effects of day length on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, as males, in addition to having reduced hippocampal volume in short days (SD) with concomitant impairments in hippocampus-mediated behaviors, have photoperiod-dependent changes in olfactory bulb neurogenesis. We performed the current experiment to assess the effects of photoperiod on hippocampal neurogenesis longitudinally,

using the thymidine analog bromodeoxyuridine at multiple time points across 10 weeks of SD exposure. Compared with counterparts held in long day (LD) lengths, across the first 8 weeks of SD exposure hippocampal neurogenesis was reduced. However, at 10 weeks in SD lengths neurogenic levels in the hippocampus were Selleck GSK1120212 elevated above those levels in mice held in LD lengths. The current findings are consistent with the natural photoperiodic cycle of hippocampal function in male white-footed mice, and may help to inform research on photoperiodic plasticity in neurogenesis

and provide insight into how the complex interplay among the environment, genes and adaptive responses to changing day lengths affects brain structure, function and behavior at multiple levels. “
“Magnetic resonance imaging has provided an increasing number of methods for examining the structure and function of the human brain. Among these, Diffusion selleck inhibitor Farnesyltransferase Tensor Imaging (DTI), first described by Basser et al. (1994), has filled an important niche in structural brain imaging. By quantifying the diffusivity of water molecules within white matter tracts, investigators can obtain indices of their microstructural integrity. Most dramatically, by taking advantage

of the rotational invariance of DTI, researchers can perform tractography, i.e. constructing 3D models of the principal white matter tracts (Assaf & Pasternak, 2008). Despite the esthetic beauty of many such figures, the workhorse measures of DTI remain the voxel-wise indices of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity (White et al., 2008). In this current issue of EJN, Konrad et al. (2010) used DTI to examine white matter in a substantial sample (n = 37) of never-medicated adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ADHD, which is characterized by behavioural symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity (American Psychiatric Association, 2000), is increasingly recognized as a disorder that affects individuals throughout the lifespan (Biederman et al., 2007). As expected (Casey et al., 2007; Makris et al., 2008), Konrad et al. (2010) found that patients with ADHD have reduced white matter fractional anisotropy in the right anterior cingulate bundle, and both reduced white matter fractional anisotropy and increased mean diffusivity in bilateral inferior frontoccipital fasciculus.

The rate of hospitalization in H1N1pdm09 reported in this study w

The rate of hospitalization in H1N1pdm09 reported in this study was much higher than those reported elsewhere[33, 34] for H1N1pdm09 cases and may not represent severity of illness in this population. This has more likely resulted from some countries’ (eg, Singapore, Italy, France) policies to hospitalize all H1N1pdm09 cases identified during the initial pandemic phase, MI-503 in vivo regardless of severity. The mean days from first official H1N1pdm09 case reported by a country to WHO and the first GeoSentinel site report of a H1N1pdm09-exported case in a traveler originated

from that country was inversely associated with each country’s assigned pandemic interval, or local level of transmission intensity. This might indicate that a certain threshold of influenza transmission needs to be present locally before there is sufficient probability that

a traveler can export the virus across international borders. In this context, the detection of travel-related pandemic influenza cases by a sentinel system such as GeoSentinel could be a reliable indicator of the onset of sustained transmission within the exposure country as infected travelers captured in the system function as sentinels for sustained influenza transmission. The first cases of H1N1pdm09 in GeoSentinel acquired infection in Mexico in April 2009, but overall few cases from Mexico were identified. This could reflect lack of JQ1 widely available diagnostics in most countries during the major wave of exportation from Mexico in the early days of the pandemic. This report contains a number of important observations on an opportunistic, multinational, and sentinel sample of travelers using data gathered at existing surveillance sites that happened

to be in a position to capture these travelers in the face of a sudden pandemic. This validation of ongoing international efforts by consortia like GeoSentinel in setting up surveillance for travelers in key countries all over the world is the strength of this article. The design however would have been different if data capture could have been planned in advance, but DNA Damage inhibitor this was an unexpected pandemic with an unexpected origin and it is not possible now to go back and ascertain new data that was not part of our standard data collection form. It is also not possible to obtain reports from network sites with normal referral patterns that would exclude travelers with acute respiratory illness in the face of an influenza pandemic. This is not a comprehensive worldwide study of every border in each country. And therefore, the results are not reflective of broad national data. The observations are on the travelers enrolled and sampled. Thus, some biases in spectrum of severity or epidemiologic exposure cannot be ruled out. Differences between surveillance systems in different countries could lead to misclassification bias in determining the pandemic interval if there were detection delays.

, 2010) Therefore, it is likely that degraded TCI may be benefic

, 2010). Therefore, it is likely that degraded TCI may be beneficial for improving spatiotemporal bimanual coordination, even if the bimanual action is carried out asymmetrically. Another interpretation is that the decrease in TCI is a manifestation of the general suppression of the absolute impact of transcallosal interference. It

was proposed that the gain control of excitatory Alvelestat purchase and inhibitory transcallosal discharges countervails the neural interference between the motor cortices (Rokni et al., 2003). This allows each motor cortex to work independently without any interference from the contralateral cortex. Regarding this notion, callosotomy patients reportedly acquire a high degree of independence for movements on each side during bimanual movements at the expense of their selleck ability to coordinate bimanual movements (Eliassen et al., 1999). Thus, when movements on each side have their own respective task goals, it should be beneficial that the movements on each side are organized individually and that they do not interfere with each other. Recent

behavioral studies reported that such motor organization was implemented depending on the task requirement (Diedrichsen et al., 2004; Diedrichsen, 2007; Mutha & Sainburg, 2009). Given these reports, our findings might provide a good perspective of the CC circuit as a key structure influencing task-dependent bimanual interactions, even though the observed modulation of TCI did not demonstrate directly the extent of interhemispheric connectivity. Although we demonstrated that the symmetric condition exhibited larger TCI than the asymmetric condition, it could be claimed that the transcallosal

inhibitory circuit was occluded during asymmetric condition. A relatively high intensity of TMS is required to elicit TCI. Therefore, if the transcallosal circuit is highly activated during the asymmetric condition, selleck antibody inhibitor such high TMS intensity might produce some effects that give rise to the underestimation of TCI. We cannot completely rule out this possibility from a physiological point of view, even though we confirmed that TCI was further increased as TMS intensity was > 150% RMT during static muscle contraction (Supporting Information Fig. S1). In addition, we need to consider the data-processing methods for both force and EMG averaging. The present study adopted a signal averaging approach to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the TMS-induced response on the ongoing EMG activity. It is true that the temporal profile of averaged force trace may not be representative of any single trial. However, it is also true that a single trial was not enough to properly detect TCI onset and offset. To obtain reliable data, we averaged more than 20 signals for all experiments, which improved our ability to assess TCI.

VC-M is supported

VC-M is supported PD-332991 by a fellowship from the JdlC programme and grant JCI-2010-06395. XE is supported by a fellowship from the JdlC programme and grant JDCI20071020. The constructive comments and criticisms of the two anonymous reviewers helped us to improve the manuscript and are greatly appreciated. Conflicts of interest: The authors declare no competing interests. Other members of the HIV Lipodystrophy

Study Group and contributors to this paper are: Verónica Alba, Alba Aguilar, Teresa Auguet, Matilde R. Chacón, Miguel López-Dupla, Anna Megia, Merce Miranda, Montserrat Olona, Amadeu Saurí, Montserrat Vargas, Ignacio Velasco and Sergi Veloso (Hospital Universitari Joan XXIII, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain); Àngels Fontanet, Mar Gutiérrez, Gràcia Mateo, Jessica Muñoz, Ma Antònia Sambeat (Hospital de la Santa Creu

i Sant Pau, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain). “
“Prospective pharmacogenetic screening for the human leucocyte selleck compound antigen (HLA) B*5701 allele can significantly reduce the number of cases of abacavir-related hypersensitivity among HIV-infected patients treated with this drug. The aim of this study was to establish the frequency of the HLA B*5701 variant in HIV-infected Poles. The sequence-specific primer (SSP) test was used to assess the feasibility of the introduction

of such testing in clinical practice. Molecular motor For this purpose, 234 randomly selected HIV-positive patients were screened using a low-resolution SSP assay, with HLA B*5701-positive results confirmed using a high-resolution test. The HLA B*5701 variant was found in 11 of 234 subjects (4.7%). Testing with the selected method proved quick and reliable. Despite extensive research in the field of pharmacogenetics, routine genetic marker testing for clinical purposes is not common. One successful example of the implementation of such a test into practice is human leucocyte antigen (HLA) B*5701 testing among people living with HIV, prior to the introduction of the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor abacavir to antiretroviral treatment. The drug was associated with hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs), which were noted in up to 8% of Caucasian individuals after challenge with the drug [1]. Hypersensitivity can occur within 6 weeks of treatment initiation and most commonly manifests clinically as fever, rashes, respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms or malaise/lethargy [2]. The symptoms resolve quickly, within 72 hours of drug discontinuation. Re-challenge with the drug in hypersensitive individuals can be fatal, with acute anaphylaxis and hypotension [3].

Any queries (other than missing material) should be directed to t

Any queries (other than missing material) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article. “
“In this study, we describe the characterization, cloning, expression and purification of the lysin A gene of the mycobacteriophage TM4. The gene TM4_gp29 (gp29) is a 1644-bp gene that codes for a 58.6-kDa protein and contains peptidoglycan

recognition protein, Zn-binding and amidase catalytic domains. The gene was cloned into Escherichia coli using the ‘His-Tag’ pQE60 vector. After Doxorubicin purchase affinity chromatography-mediated purification, the protein was concentrated and visualized using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Evidence of peptidoglycan-degrading activity was observed initially by a

chloroform assay and later by conventional zymogram analysis. Mycobacteria cause a wide spectrum BTK screening of diseases in humans and animals. In particular, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae are significant pathogens. Mycobacteriophages were first isolated in 1946 from samples of soil and leaf mould (Gardner & Weiser, 1947) and were able to infect fast-growing saprophytic mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium smegmatis. Because of the growing scarcity of effective antimycobacterial agents, phages and their products are of interest in the context of new antimicrobial agents. Lysin proteins have become a focus of phage research in recent years (Borysowski et al., 2006; Jagusztyn-Krynicka & Wyszyńska, 2008; Courchesne et al., 2009; O’Flaherty et al., 2009; Wang & Lu, 2009; Fenton et al., 2010; Fischetti, 2010). They have evolved to lyse the host from the inside out, but can also cause lysis of cells when applied externally. The heterologous production of recombinant lysins has been achieved in a number of genera and the antimicrobial potential of these proteins has been well documented. Examples include Streptococcus equi (Hoopes et al., 2009), Staphylococcus aureus this website (Obeso et al., 2008) (including multidrug-resistant strains) (Rashel et al., 2007),

Bacillus anthracis (Kikkawa et al., 2008), Streptococcus pneumoniae (Grandgirard et al., 2008) (including β-lactam-resistant strains) (Rodríguez-Cerrato et al., 2007), antibiotic-resistant Enterococci (Yoong et al., 2004) and Clostridium difficile (Mayer et al., 2008). To date, 75 mycobacteriophage genomes sequences are available in GenBank; however, little has been published on their lysis genes, and apart from a more general study of lysin B by Payne et al. (2009), most of the recently published literature focuses on the mycobacteriophage Ms6 (Gil et al., 2008, 2010; Catalao et al., 2010). The first description of the lysis region within a mycobacteriophage (Ms6) was recorded by Garcia et al. (2002). The protein encoded by Ms6 ORF2 induced cell lysis upon addition of chloroform, confirming its mureinolytic activity. Therefore, ORF2 was designated as Ms6 lysin A. In a later study by Hatfull et al.

To gain insight into this quick response, we tested whether it re

To gain insight into this quick response, we tested whether it requires de novo protein synthesis. Cells were treated with an excess concentration of rifampicin and chloramphenicol to inhibit transcription and translation, respectively and then exposed to a low pH. Analysis by TLC showed that the increase in CL in Ncls2 was unaffected by treatment with these inhibitors (Fig. 3). In the present study,

we first showed that Cls1 compensates for the stalled function of Cls2 under conditions of acute low-pH stress. This response did not require de novo Cls1 synthesis, suggesting that Cls1 is equipped with a backup system that can respond swiftly to such an emergency. In the human body, low-pH conditions play a protective role against pathogens. In a fasting stomach, the pH is 1–1.5, which is a strong barrier against incoming bacteria. The acidic environment of the vagina (˜pH 4) is maintained by commensal Lactobacillus spp. (Dover et al., 2008).

Also, the surface of the skin is enriched with various organic acids, including propionic acids, lactic selleck chemicals llc acid and pyruvic acid produced by host cells and the cells of the microbiota (Holland, 1993). Quick drying of the skin concentrates these organic acids, leading to a sudden acid shock. In macrophages, engulfed bacteria are challenged by a series of bactericidal factors, including acidification in the phagosome lumen (pH 5). Staphylococcus aureus, as a commensal bacterium and opportunistic pathogen, is PAK6 occasionally challenged by an acidic environment; however, it is capable of increasing its acid tolerance through its Cls1 backup system. Membrane composition can significantly affect

cell survival in response to acid exposure. In Streptococcus mutans, an increase in monounsaturated fatty acids is important for acid adaptation (Fozo & Quivey, 2004). Furthermore, the same group recently reported that CL is a reservoir for monounsaturated fatty acids, and they showed that a cls mutant of S. mutans was acid-sensitive (Macgilvray et al., 2012). Consistent with this, CL in S. aureus is also important for acid resistance (compare with wild-type cells vs. the Ncls1/cls2 double mutant in Fig. 2). An important difference is that in S. mutans CL synthesis depends on a single Cls, while S. aureus has a Cls1 backup system in addition to the housekeeping gene cls2. The present study raises a number of questions regarding the Cls1 backup system, including how Cls2 is inactivated by a low pH and how Cls1 function is initiated. Future studies should focus on the subcellular localization of these proteins, the optimal pH for enzymatic activity and activity control through specific modifications. It is also important to address why other types of stress induce Cls1-dependent CL synthesis. In the present study, we tested the effect of ‘single’ stressors on Cls1 function; however, in a natural environment, multiple stressors assault S. aureus simultaneously (e.g.

In this report, deletions of key genes required for the biogenesi

In this report, deletions of key genes required for the biogenesis of flagella and pili led to the generation of M. maripaludis strains lacking pili or flagella or both appendages.

Mutants missing either or both flagella and pili MS-275 datasheet were shown to be extremely compromised in their ability to attach to any of the many potential substrates tested compared with wild-type cells. These studies show that besides their previously documented role in swimming (Chaban et al., 2007), flagella of M. maripaludis are also critical for attachment and are involved in cell-to-cell contacts. Similarly, a role in attachment is demonstrated for pili, the first role assigned to these unusual organelles, in this organism. Very few studies on any archaea have been devoted to determining the functions of the several different types of archaeal appendages. Some organisms studied have only pili or flagella and some lack appropriate genetic systems in which to further characterize the roles of the various appendages. In Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, pili are the sole known surface appendages. Cells grown planktonically are poorly piliated; the expression of surface

pili is much enhanced, however, under conditions where the cells adhere (Thoma et al., 2008). These pili were shown to be essential for the adherence of cells to a variety of surfaces, as antibodies to the major pilus structural protein lead to detachment of the cells. A genetic system that would allow the generation of nonpiliated mutants in this species is not available. This Akt inhibitor study was the first to demonstrate a role for pili in any archaeon. In the hyperthermophile, Pyrococcus furiosus, on Celecoxib the other hand, only flagella have been reported on the cell surface and these organelles were shown to be responsible for the adherence of cells to many types of surfaces, including ones found in the organism’s natural environment (Nather et al., 2006), although adhesion to glass and mica was limited, as observed here with M. maripaludis. Again, lacking a genetic

system in which to generate nonflagellated mutants, it was shown that adherent cells could be detached by antibodies directed against flagella. This was the first report of an adhesion role for archaeal flagella. In some of the electron micrographs, large cables of flagella can be observed to leave the cell before unwinding to the single flagella that are involved in adherence, as observed for M. maripaludis. Large cables of flagella were also seen to connect cells, an additional novel role for archaea flagella and an observation again made in this study for the flagella of M. maripaludis. Pyrococcus furiosus can also attach to Methanopyrus kandleri cells via its flagella, forming a unique archaeal bispecies biofilm (Schopf et al., 2008). Cable-like groups of flagella were shown to mediate cell-to-cell contact and attachment to gold grids in Methanocaldococcus villosus (Bellack et al., 2010).

These results clearly indicated that both IR2 and the downstream

These results clearly indicated that both IR2 and the downstream half-site of IR1 are necessary for the binding of IphR. The requirement of an additional half-site with a palindrome is uncommon in regulator binding sites, but the PcaU binding region is known to contain three perfectly conserved 10 bp repeats (R1, R2, and R3), which form a palindrome (R1 and R2) and a direct repeat (R3) located 11 bp downstream of the palindrome (Popp et al.,

Palbociclib cost 2002; Jerg & Gerischer, 2008). R3 is a repetition of the half-site of the palindrome (R2) proximal to R3. The binding region of an IclR-type repressor, HmgR, also contains a 17-bp perfect palindromic motif and a 6-bp direct repetition of the palindrome (Arias-Barrau et al., 2004). However, the direct repeat motif located 4 bp upstream of the palindrome is

a repetition of the half-site of the palindrome distal Wnt activation to the direct repeat motif. Although there was no obvious sequence similarity between the binding regions of IphR and HmgR, and the downstream half-site of IR1 is not a perfect direct repeat of the downstream half-site of IR2, the arrangement of both binding regions appeared to be similar; positions of the palindrome and additional repeat each overlap the transcription start site and −10 region, respectively. IPA and/or its metabolite were suggested to be an inducer of the iph operon by the analyses of promoter and primer extension. We examined the ability of IPA and its analogous substrates: phthalate, TPA, PCA, and 3-hydroxybenzoate (100 µM) to inhibit the ht-IphR binding to the IPH-60 fragment by EMSA. Among these substrates, only IPA abolished the binding of ht-IphR (Fig. 4). In addition, the iphA promoter activity of iphA mutant (DEIA) cells harboring reporter plasmid pZSH2, which accumulates IPA during incubation with IPA, was increased ca. 90-fold (21 ± 2.0 mU mg−1) Ribonucleotide reductase in the presence

of IPA. These results indicated that IPA itself is the specific effector that modulates IphR binding to the operator, acting as an inducer of the iph operon. IphR negatively autoregulates the transcription of IPA catabolic operon, iphACBDR, in E6. In the absence of IPA, IphR binds to the operator region containing an inverted repeat (IR2) and a downstream half-site of another inverted repeat (IR1) to repress the transcription of iph operon. Although further analysis is necessary to clarify the manner of binding of IphR, this regulator protein might bind to the operator as a dimer of dimers, as ht-IphR was suggested to mainly form a dimer in solution. N.K. and K.I. contributed equally to this work. This study has no conflict of interest between authors. “
“The goal of this study was to develop and validate a novel fosmid-clone-based metagenome isotope array approach – termed the community isotope array (CIArray) – for sensitive detection and identification of microorganisms assimilating a radiolabeled substrate within complex microbial communities.