It is conceivable that chronic immunosuppression associated with HIV infection may contribute to a tumor microenvironment
that facilitates tumor progression, growth, and dedifferentiation. While these relationships are far from established, it may be the case that small cell carcinoma of the anus is more likely to develop in such a microenvironment and that Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical HIV infection is indeed a risk factor for this malignancy. Since small cell carcinoma of the anus is an extremely rare malignancy, a definitive understanding of its pathogenesis is not established. As more data accumulates to suggest a relationship between HPV infection and the development of small cell carcinoma of the anus, HPV-directed therapies could prove beneficial. Furthermore, vaccines against high-risk HPV may be protective against the development of this aggressive cancer. Finally, the role of HIV in the pathogenesis Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of small cell carcinoma of the anus is unclear and merits further study. Ultimately, more research is needed to more clearly delineate the relationships between HPV, HIV, and small cell carcinoma of the anus. Acknowledgements Disclosure: There are no financial disclosures for any authors on this study. This study had no financial support.
cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer related death in the United States (1). It is Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical a deadly disease that is found to be distantly metastatic by radiographic imaging in up to two-thirds of new diagnoses. When distant metastases are not found, surgical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical resection is the only potentially curative therapy, yet 80% of newly diagnosed patients are not eligible for Capmatinib cost surgery because of metastatic or locally advanced disease at presentation (2,3). Even when patients with clinically localized pancreatic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical cancer undergo surgical resection there is still a high rate of treatment failure due to local tumor regrowth, incomplete resection, or metastatic disease. Non-metastatic but locally unresectable pancreatic cancer can be divided into two categories: (I) borderline resectable and (II) locally advanced disease. Borderline resectable pancreatic cancer can involve
the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) or portal vein (PV), the gastroduodenal or hepatic arteries, or less than half the circumference of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). Locally advanced pancreatic cancer includes disease that encases more that Cell press 50% of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) or celiac artery (CA), or invades or encases the aorta or involves lymph nodes that are outside of the resection field (4). While surgery remains the only potentially curative option for localized pancreatic cancer, the optimal initial treatment strategy when surgery is not possible is unknown. Three treatment strategies commonly employed in the current era include chemotherapy alone (C), concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CRT), or induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation therapy (CCRT).