“Overfishing and overcapacity are costing the world’s fish

“Overfishing and overcapacity are costing the world’s fishery sector dearly, reducing resource rent—the surplus after fishing costs have been subtracted from revenue—by

selleckchem an estimated US$50 billion a year according to two recent studies based on different methodologies [1] and [2]. Meanwhile, the gap between global revenue and costs narrows [1], with global revenue from marine fisheries at approximately US$95 billion [3], [4], [5] and [6] and the total variable cost of fishing estimated at US$92 billion (both in real 2005 dollars) [7]. Excess subsidies, by one estimate topping US$27 billion per year currently [8], largely fuel this cycle of dysfunction. Against this backdrop, the human consumption of fish has been rising, up 9% from 2002 to 2006 alone [9]. To support this, overall fish production from both capture fisheries and aquaculture continues to climb, reaching a level in 2006 more than seven times that recorded for 1950 [9]. The phenomenal growth of aquaculture is responsible

for the recent growth, selleck monoclonal antibody and nearly half of the world’s food fish supply is farmed at present [9]. But just as the overall rise in fish production hides the stagnation in catches from the world’s capture fisheries over the past two decades [6] and [9], global catch trends mask successive declines in regional stocks [10] and the geographic spread of overfishing in time [11] and [12]. Indeed, the roughly fivefold increase in marine fishery catches from 1950 to the late 1980s when catches peaked was facilitated by the expansion into and exploitation Branched chain aminotransferase of new fishing areas, from the North Atlantic and Western Pacific coastlines southward and into the high seas [12]. Defining thresholds of unsustainable fishing across the diverse marine ecosystems and fisheries of the world is an uncertain task and a matter of lively debate (e.g., [13] and [14]). In the absence of scientific stock assessments for all commercial species, studies have evaluated overfishing at a global scale by extrapolating

from available stock assessments and research surveys [9], [15] and [16]; using catch trends as an indicator of stock biomass levels [17]; combining catch data with primary productivity levels [12] and [18] or empirical stock-assessment based relationships [19]; or some combination of these methods [20]. Despite ongoing controversy regarding the interpretation of data sources, consensus is emerging; according to several recent assessments, up to one-third of global fishery stocks are now overexploited or collapsed [9], [11], [15], [16], [19] and [21]. These assessments document the geographic spread and intensification of overfishing from the 1950s to the 1990s, with the proportion of depleted stocks stable since the 1990s in some analyses [9] and [21] and increasing at different rates in others [17], [19] and [20].

As regards MeAV projections to the BST, it should be


As regards MeAV projections to the BST, it should be

noted that the tiny densely varicose subventricular foci (Figs. 3A, B, 6A) do not appear to correspond in location to the ejaculation-related clusters of Fos-immunorreactive neurons documented in rodents (Coolen et al., 1996 and Veening and Coolen, 1998), their functional implication being thus far unknown. Retrograde tracing observations in mice by Choi et al. (2005), in consonance with our own results, indicate that the MeAV innervates modestly the ventral premammillary nucleus and even more sparsely the medial preoptic nucleus. Having in mind that MeAV efferents also terminate rather modestly in the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, and avoid almost completely the tuberal nucleus (present PHA-L observations), this scenario

suggest that the MeAV exerts little if any influence on key structures of a broad Venetoclax in vitro hypothalamic network subserving social behaviors (Motta et al., 2009, Newman, 1999, Simerly, 2002 and Swanson, 2000). Although Canteras and coworkers reliably Sunitinib supplier observed retrogradely labeled cells in ventral parts of the rat Me (including the MeAV) after injections in the dorsal premammillary nucleus (Comoli et al., 2000), they argued that this labeling probably reflects a spillover of the tracer into the ventral premammillary nucleus. The present PHA-L results indicating that the MeAV provides a clear input to the dorsal premammillary nucleus are in line with anterograde tracing studies (Gomez and Newman, 1992 and Luiten et al., 1985). A substantial retrograde labeling was noted in the MeAV after injections in the anterior hypothalamus (Choi et al., 2005 and Price et al., 1991; our own retrograde tracing experiments), however, the present anterograde tracing observations Baricitinib suggest that this nucleus is essentially traversed

by labeled poorly varicose passing fibers. It should be noted that in the present study MeAV projections were examined in females, whether these projections are sexually dimorphic remain to be determined. Remarkably, in spite of the low density of receptors for gonadal hormones in the anterior Me (Simerly et al., 1990), variations in the volume of the MeAV were reported during the estrous cycle, probably related to changes in estradiol levels (Carrillo et al., 2007). The possible functional significance of the MeAV is discussed based on its connectivity and on insights from studies using the expression of immediate early genes, as markers of neuronal activity (Fig. 12). The MeAV receives robust projections from the main and accessory olfactory systems (Canteras et al., 1995, Kemppainen et al., 2002, Luskin and Price, 1983, Majak and Pitkänen, 2003, McDonald, 1998, Petrovich et al., 1996 and Savander et al., 1996; present observations) including direct projections from the main olfactory bulb (Kang et al., 2009, Pro-Sistiaga et al.

They must be obtained from experiments – the instructions for und

They must be obtained from experiments – the instructions for undertaking these titrations are given in Appendix A. Seawater samples

were taken from the River Thames and Brighton Marina. The 100 ml samples of river/seawater were acidified with 4 ml of 1 mol/l nitric acid (HNO3) resulting in pH = 3.27 for Thames water and pH = 3.45 for Brighton Marina. For low dilution factors, the dependence of pH Omipalisib nmr on dilution is similar for both samples (see Fig. 5a and b) because the molarity of the acid is much stronger than the alkalinity; in this instance the initial pH increase is largely due to dilution with the pH recovering by slightly more than 1 unit when D=10D=10. From Ganetespib price these curves we can determine the total dilution required to bring the discharge to a pH = 6.5. In this example, Brighton seawater has an alkalinity of 770 μmol/l and River Thames

water has an alkalinity of 480 μmol/l. The former is typical for the low alkalinity waters in the Baltic seas (see Fig. 2b). These titration experiments were done over a period of 15 min, with less than a minute for each step; much faster than a number of published studies (Behrends et al., 2005). This is to mimic more closely the processes that occur within the jet – the travel time of the acidic jet fluid from the nozzle to a distance of 4 m is typically <10 s. We examine the engineering constraints on DjetDjet and chemistry constraints on DTDT to achieve the necessary pH recovery. The design of the port discharge hole may be optimised to ensure pH = 6.5 at 4 m, for a single circular discharge port. An example discharge of pH = 3.5 is used, which was obtained from mixing seawater and a monoprotic acid with molarity 0.0385 mol/l. Extension to other values of discharge pH and

seawaters is straightforward. To enable large volumes to be discharged multiple ports may be required and the number can be estimated to be equation(23) N=QsDT24πu0α2×2.From (11), the jet nozzle radius that ensures a dilution DTDT, is equation(24) b0=2αxDT.Fig. 6 shows how the number and size of the discharge ports is selected. We consider the examples of 5, 10 and 15 MW ships (where Qs=45t/hr per MW of power) which are 4��8C in waters with a low alkalinity of 1500 μmol l−1. This alkalinity is typical for the main shipping routes in the Baltic Sea (Fig. 2b). The alkalinity determines the total dilution required which is DT=19.25DT=19.25 (obtained from Fig. 6a from the solid red line) and this sizes the discharge port radius which is 0.033 m from (24). We have chosen u0=2m/s which is a conservative estimate of the discharge speed. The number of ports is shown in Fig. 6c. The result is that for the 5, 10 and 15 MW ships 9, 18 and 27 outlet nozzles are required. Fig.

, 2007) As these adjacent brain areas have also been implicated

, 2007). As these adjacent brain areas have also been implicated in cognitive control tasks (particularly anterior cingulate), it is not possible to entirely disambiguate their possible contribution to the deficits observed in these studies. To our knowledge there has been no report of a patient whose lesion is entirely constrained within the borders of the

pre-SMA. Here we present a young patient with a highly focal, unilateral lesion of the caudal pre-SMA. Since pre-SMA has frequently been associated with cognitive control and executive function, we chose to investigate how this might have affected performance on three standard tasks, each of which indexes a different aspect of response selection or inhibition. The STOP-signal task assesses this website the ability to inhibit an on-going response, whereas the CHANGE-signal task requires the participant to rapidly switch to a different response plan. Finally the Eriksen flanker task measures how quickly an individual is able to select between conflicting response plans that are activated simultaneously. Together these tasks employ similar stimuli with different rules, to explore specific aspects of executive function. Surprisingly we Galunisertib found that she did not display a significant

impairment when asked to stop an action (STOP task), but was significantly impaired when switching between response plans (CHANGE task). The patient also displayed Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase no significant deficit when processing conflict at the level of the stimulus (Eriksen Flanker). Remarkably, it appears that this lesion of the caudal pre-SMA impaired the ability to rapidly switch between overt responses, whilst leaving stopping behaviour intact. We discuss these findings

in the context of the current literature and the implications for understanding the role of pre-SMA in voluntary action. Patient KP is a 28-year-old, right-handed woman who was diagnosed with epilepsy, following the onset of simple partial seizures. Following a subsequent grand mal seizure later in the year, further MRI investigations revealed a very small cavernoma (a blood vessel anomaly, also sometimes referred to as a cavernous haemangioma). This was located on the medial aspect of the right superior frontal gyrus. At the time, KP was experiencing complex partial seizures with secondary generalisations, and the cavernoma was subsequently resected. A follow-up structural scan 4 months after surgery demonstrates the focal nature of the lesion, which lies medial to the superior frontal sulcus and rostral to the paracentral sulcus. The paracentral sulcus has previously been demonstrated to be a useful landmark for the location of the supplementary eye field (SEF) (Grosbras, Lobel, Van de Moortele, LeBihan, & Berthoz, 1999), which lies at the caudal border of the pre-SMA; thus this lesion lies well within the pre-SMA. The sagittal sections in Fig.

The transgastric pigtail stents were removed 6 weeks later A hyp

The transgastric pigtail stents were removed 6 weeks later. A hypaque enema performed 5 months after the OTSC procedure revealed near resolution of the sigmoid stricture, one of the 2 OTSC clips still in place, and no evidence for residual fistula/leak. The patient remains clinically well at follow-up 7 months later.

Pancreatico-colonic fistula is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of necrotizing Buparlisib molecular weight pancreatitis. Direct fistulous communication to the colon may also lead to chemical injury resulting in inflammatory colitis and stricture formation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful closure of pancreatico-colonic fistula using the OTSC device. “
“Endoloop ligation has been previously reported for the treatment of subepithelial tumors. Miniprobe-EUS requires water submersion for acoustic coupling. In appropriately selected cases, EUS can be followed immediately by underwater looping. Water submersion may facilitate loop ligation due to a floating and contracting effect. Ligation strangulates off blood supply to the tumor, which leads to ischemic tumor ablation. Unroofing enables biopsies selleck screening library of the underlying tumor, but

also promotes spontaneous tumor enucleation. Ligation prior to unroofing may reduce risks of bleeding and perforation, and ischemia contributes to tumor enucleation. The aim of Paclitaxel our study was to evaluate the feasibility and outcomes of FLUB (Float-Ligate-Unroof-Biopsy) for the diagnosis and treatment of subepithelial tumors. EUS was performed with a 12 MHz radial-scanning catheter miniprobe inserted through a therapeutic channel gastroscope or colonoscope. A standard nylon endoloop (3 cm diameter) was used for loop ligation. A standard needle knife was used for unroofing. A standard biopsy forceps was used for subepithelial tumor sampling. We excluded patients with nonpedunculated tumors originating from the 4th wall layer (muscularis propria). Results: 17

patients (7 males) with a mean age of 67 underwent the FLUB procedure. Most lesions were incidentally found on endoscopy throughout the GI tract (Incidental -11; Bleeding – 2; Obstruction -2). Most lesions were lipomas, but there were other diagnoses (Histology: Lipoma -11; Carcinoid -2; Granular cell -1; Leiomyoma – 1; Hamartoma-1; Vanek’s tumor -1). Median size was 15mm (range: 4-55). There were no complications, including no intraprocedural bleeding. Follow-up: available in 8 patients (47%), of whom 3 (37%) had residual lesions that were all relooped. Conclusion: 1. Underwater loop ligation of subepithelial tumors can be performed seamlessly after EUS. 2. Water facilitates loop ligation of subepithelial tumors. 3. The FLUB technique simplifies the diagnosis and therapy of subepithelial tumors. “
“IBD patients have an increased risk of colorectal cancer.

COD concentration was measured with Hach COD analysis kits (reage

COD concentration was measured with Hach COD analysis kits (reagent 20–1,500 mg/L COD range, Hach Company, USA). After filtration of MXC effluent with 0.45 μm membrane (RK-02915-14, Cole-Parmer, USA) SCOD concentration was quantified. Total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), and alkalinity concentrations

were measured, according to the Standard Methods (APHA, 1998). The pH in acetate medium, the wastewater and MXC effluent this website were measured with a pH benchtop meter (PHB-600R, OMEGA, Canada) connected with a microprobe pH electrode (RK-55500-40, Accumet® MicroProbe™ combination electrode, Cole-Parmer, Canada). Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) which includes acetate, propionate, n-butyrate, n-valerate, iso-butyrate, and iso-valerate were analyzed using a gas chromatography (GC) (Model: Hewlett Packard

HP 5890 Series II) equipped with a Nukol fused-silica capillary column and flame ionization detector (FID). Helium gas was used as a carrier gas. The initial temperature of the column was 110 °C, increasing to 195 °C at the rate of 8 °C/min, and then held constant at the final temperature of 195 °C for 9 min. Injector and detector temperatures were 220 °C and 280 °C, respectively. Prior to GC-FID analyses, liquid samples were acidified to pH ∼2 using 1 N phosphoric acid, and then filtered using 0.2 μm membrane filter (DISMIC-25HP, Toyo Roshi Kaisha Ltd., Japan). All samples were analyzed in triplicates. Fig. 1 shows current density at various acetate concentrations, which follows a typical Monod pattern. The maximum current density (jmax) was 6.43 A/m2 of membrane, PLX3397 and the best-fit of Ks was estimated at 17.3 mg COD/L. The simulated curve with the estimated Ks, measured jmax, and measured acetate concentration well fitted into experimental data ( Fig. 1). The pseudo, apparent Ks does not represent the half-maximum substrate concentration Gefitinib of ARB for acetate because current density was expressed per the projected area of membrane, instead of anode surface

area; the literature provides more detailed information on this aspect [17] and [35]. However, this pseudo, apparent Ks is able to provide useful information on the relationship between substrate concentration and current density in the MXC. For instance, the simulation with Eq. (1) predicts 3.9 A/m2 for effluent SCOD of 26 mg/L (only 9% error). Hence, this pseudo, apparent Ks can be used for a design parameter of MXCs. Table 2 shows an average of the maximum current density observed in the MXC at different feed conditions. The maximum current density was small at 1.2 ± 0.25 A/m2 for Run 1 (bicarbonate buffer 50 mM), due to substrate limitation (acetate 2.7 ± 0.2 mM and 175 ± 10 mg COD/L); in comparison, the maximum current density was 18 ± 2 A/m2 at 25 mM acetate during acclimation.

5B) Next, whether the increase in cell proliferation induced by

5B). Next, whether the increase in cell proliferation induced by NE was also mediated by β-ARs was assessed.

SCC9 cells were treated with propranolol before stimulation with 10 μM NE at 6 h, and cell proliferation was assayed by MTT. Inhibition of β-ARs produced significant decrease in NE-induced cell proliferation, showing that this event is β-AR-dependent (Fig. 5C). This decreasing in NE-induced cell proliferation after β-ARs inhibition also was found in the SCC15 cells (results not shown). Since NE may stimulate Selleckchem 5 FU IL-6 production by OSCC, whether NE-induced OSCC proliferation is mediated by IL-6 was subsequently tested. To this end, anti-IL-6 ab was used to neutralize the action of IL-6 in SCC9 cells. As illustrated in Fig. 5C, treatment of SCC9 cells with 10 μg/mL of anti-IL-6 induced significant inhibition of NE-induced proliferation (p < 0.05). Anti-IL-6

in lower concentration (1 μg/mL) was not able to inhibit NE-induced proliferation ( Fig. 5C). Recombinant IL-6 increased SCC9 cell proliferation (data not shown). To determine the clinical relevance of our results, expression of β1- and β2-ARs mRNAs were examined in 20 tumor specimens of OSCC and compared with the expression in 17 specimens of oral leukoplakia and 15 specimens of normal oral mucosa. Clinical characteristics of patients from whom samples were obtained are summarized in Table 1. β1- and β2-AR mRNAs were expressed in all 20 cases of OSCC. Of the 17 cases of leukoplakia, five

were negative for β1-AR and one was negative for β2-AR. Of the 15 specimens of normal mucosa, three did not express β1-AR and one was negative for β2-AR. Quantitatively, the mean expression selleck chemical of the β1-AR mRNA levels in OSCC specimens was 2.7-fold higher compared to normal mucosa (p < 0.05), while in specimens of leukoplakia the expression was 1.6-fold higher (p > 0.05) ( Fig. 6A). In contrast, β2-AR mRNA mean expression was lower in leukoplakia compared to normal mucosa and OSCC, but these results were not significant ( Fig. 6A). The β-AR expression for each studied case can be better seen in Fig. 6B and C. This study provides strong evidence that OSCC cells are influenced by neurohormonal mediators. The results demonstrated that stress-related mediators (NE and isoproterenol) L-gulonolactone oxidase can enhance the production of the pro-angiogenic cytokine IL-6 in human OSCC cell lines. IL-6, originally identified as a B-cell growth factor, is produced by many cell types, including T-cells, macrophages, and stromal cells. As seen in this study, OSCC cells are also capable of producing IL-6, and basal levels are already detectable at 1 h. Secreted cytokine products, including IL-6, are available to interact with cellular receptors; thus, they are able to exert paracrine or autocrine effects. The concentrations of IL-6 secreted by OSCC cells in this study, even by non-stimulated cells, are clearly within the range expected to have biological activity.

The total number of people employed with seafood in fish restaura

The total number of people employed with seafood in fish restaurants in Peru was obtained by first excluding all restaurants that were selling other products than seafood. Seafood thus had to be the only source of animal protein sold in a restaurant for it to be included. This means that employment in this sector was underestimated significantly, as many (or most) restaurants sell seafood as only a component of their assortment. The total number of seafood

restaurants was obtained from Ipsos Apoyo [15] and Arellano Marketing [16], and the restaurants were ranked in terms of size (number of tables). Based on this, ‘typical restaurants’ were defined with a fixed number of employees per restaurant size. From field observations and interviews with members of the Peruvian Gastronomic selleck chemical Association (APEGA) and restaurant owners, the ‘typical consumption of fish’ per fish restaurant was then derived, and

via a weighted average estimated the overall employment per ton of seafood sold. All types of jobs in the restaurants were considered – from waiters to security guards. The total number of supermarkets across Peru in 2009 was obtained from official web pages and by interviews with brand managers in Lima (Supermercados Peruanos, Wong, and TOTUS). It was assumed that there were 1–2 people employed full time in the fresh fish section (depending on the supermarket brand and size) and that there were 1–2 people employed OSI-744 cost full time arranging and selling canned, cured, and frozen fish products in each supermarket, as well as 1–2 people involved with storing and distributing fish to the supermarkets from the wholesaler markets. Although many of the people that are employed in supermarkets move, organize and sell fish products at any given time, only a minor fraction of their salaries come from this exchange. Therefore, the employment per ton of seafood sold, was estimated based on the number of full time jobs per ton rather than fractions of a job per ton. Supermarket

employees validated these numbers. The total number of local retail markets (whether organized by a municipality, district, privately, or publicly) was enumerated in 1996 [17] and here extrapolated to account for their growth, assuming an overall increase of 10% by 2009. Based on field observations, it was estimated that BCKDHA 20 percentage of stands sold fresh fish out of the total number of stands at markets at the coast, highlands, and jungle. It was also assumed (based on observations and interviews) that 80% of the fresh seafood was sold commercially through local markets at the coast and that the remaining 20% was sold commercially in the highlands and jungle. Freshwater fish (both wild caught and aquaculture produced) is significantly more frequent in the Andean and Amazonian markets as compared to seafood, and this was considered in the calculations, though only marine products are included in the results here.

Two of the working group representatives – with

the suppo

Two of the working group representatives – with

the support of the rest of the working group – also participated on the Project Team. Due to data limitations, it was not possible to create spatial data for some recommended features, check details while other datasets not specifically mentioned at workshops were developed from available data (e.g., general kelp). While the focus of the BCMCA project was to collate existing data, opportunities arose to create or update some ecological and human use datasets. Known gaps in digital datasets for four ecological features were filled by digitising data (e.g., central coast Marbled Murrelet surveys). For the purposes of the BCMCA, the existing provincial benthic classification scheme was replaced by a new benthic classification developed by Parks Canada using methods published Ku-0059436 nmr by the Nature Conservancy (TNC) [19]. The

benthic classification combined three parameters: (i) landscape features, (ii) depth, and (iii) substrate in order to identify areas of similar benthic characteristics. Human use datasets were reviewed by the appropriate sector and some were deemed outdated or inadequate for marine planning. A comprehensive local knowledge collection project, funded and overseen by the BCMCA, was undertaken through consultation with members of the Sport Fishing Advisory Board to update sport fishing data. BCMCA also undertook work which enabled access to spatial data describing

commercial fisheries including Roe Herring, Sardine, and Salmon fisheries. In addition, oil and gas prospectivity data were updated, cruise ship and ferry route data were corrected, and multiple datasets were merged and/or verified with knowledgeable users to develop updated and corrected, coast wide scuba diving, campsite and marine facilities (marinas and other tourism facilities with docks) data. The BCMCA also developed a dataset science illustrating areas of interest for ocean energy (wave and tidal) through a participatory exercise at a mapping workshop. Once all features were compiled and reviewed, maps and descriptive information were combined into atlas pages, available online (www.bcmca.ca). Maps showing the number of features found in each planning unit (i.e., data richness maps) were created for each ecological group and human use sector, counting only datasets designated for use in Marxan. Marxan (version 2.1.1) was used to identify areas of high conservation value and areas important to human use. Marxan is a free decision support tool that finds efficient solutions to the problem of selecting a set of areas that meet a suite of conservation [10] and [20] or human use targets [e.g., 13]. Explanations of how Marxan works have been provided in detail elsewhere and are not repeated here (e.g., see the Marxan website http://www.uq.edu.au/marxan/).

The pattern of higher FA and lower RD observed here in absence of

The pattern of higher FA and lower RD observed here in absence of differences in AD in the genu of the CC could be interpreted either in terms of a higher axonal density or a higher degree of myelination (cf. Beaulieu, 2002 and Jones et al., 2013). Higher axonal density, lower axonal caliber, as well as the higher Cisplatin datasheet degree of myelination should be reflected in lower RD and therefore higher FA (cf. Jones et al., 2013). Indeed, it has been demonstrated in eight different fiber tracts in mice that myelin loss

alone (without axonal injury) can cause an increase in RD, while the AD remains unchanged (Song et al., 2002). Additionally, Song et al. (2005) evaluated the sensitivity of DTI parameters to detect the progression of myelin by testing demyelination and remyelination of corpus callosum in the mouse brain. see more Results demonstrated that radial diffusivity offers a specific assessment of demyelination and remyelination, as distinct from acute axonal damage. Thus,

a more specific disruption of myelin is implied when an increase in RD occurs without an accompanying increase in AD (cf., Madden et al., 2012). However, the interpretation of RD as indicator of myelination is not straightforward and should be avoided especially in regions of complex tissue architecture (Sasson et al., 2010 and Wheeler-Kingshott and Cercignani, 2009). We hence assume that the higher directionality of diffusion (as indicated by FA) is either due to differences in the

number of axons and/or in the degree of myelination in more intelligent men. Myelination of axons is known to increase the signal transmission speed (Waxman, 1977) and decrease the refractory time (time needed for repolarization before a new action potential can be supported by Decitabine the axon; Felts et al., 1997 and Sinha et al., 2006). Accordingly, the degree of myelination improves the integration of information across spatially distributed neural networks supporting cognitive and motor functions (Bartzokis et al., 2010, Fuster, 1999, Lu et al., 2011, Lu et al., 2013, Lutz et al., 2005, Mesulam, 2000 and Srinivasan, 1999). The higher degree of myelination in more intelligent men thus might account for more efficient brain functioning (cf., Miller, 1994). The relationship of intelligence with the efficiency of brain functioning has been studied intensely throughout the past 20 years. It led to the postulation of the neural efficiency hypothesis assuming negative IQ-brain activation relationship, cf. Neubauer and Fink, 2009a, Neubauer and Fink, 2009b and Dunst et al., 2014). This relationship, however, can be moderated by other factors such as sex and task content (Dunst et al., 2013, Jaušovec and Jaušovec, 2008, Lipp et al., 2012, Neubauer et al., 2010, Neubauer et al., 2002 and Neubauer et al., 2005).