tisation in selleck chemicals Pacritinib an e siccator rats were endo tracheally intubated with a 14G cannula and mechanically venti lated. During subsequent surgical preparation anaesthesia was maintained with 2. 0 3. 0 vol % isoflurane. Monitoring was maintained using a rectal temperature sensor, an o ygen saturation clip at the right hindpaw Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries and continuous electrocardiogram. The median sacral artery was cannulated with a 20G cannula, which served as the arterial inflow cannula for the CPB circuit. Systemic ad ministration of 200 IU heparin and 0. 5 ug of fentanyl followed the placement of the catheter. Mean arterial blood pressure was monitored via cannulation of the femoral artery. A 4. 5 multi orifice cannula was pleaded into Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries the right atrium through the right e ter nal jugular vein and served as the venous outflow.
The custom made heart lung machine circuit consisted of a venous reservoir, a roller Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries pump and an o ygenator, which was built of two ple iglas plates surrounding a disposable three layer hollow fiber membrane with a gas e change area of 558 cm2. A scheme of the CPB circuit is shown in Additional file 1 Figure S1 of the supplementary data. The CPB circuit was primed with 15 ml of 6% hydro yethyl starch. Through the venous catheter blood of the jugular vein flew into the venous reservoir leading the blood through the peristaltic pump into the membrane o ygenator where the gas e change occurred. From there on the enriched blood returned to the animal via the arterial inflow cannula. To secure a uniform time frame for the cannulation in all e periments, 90 minutes after placing the arterial catheter the rats were connected to the HLM, and CPB was induced.
The flow rate started with 160 to 180 kg?1 min?1 and was gradually decreased or increased by half during the Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries cooling and rewarming period, respectively. During the CPB fentanyl and cisartracurium were administered over the venous reservoir and the rats were ventilated with 10 strokes min. To secure the perfusion of the organs the MAP was maintained above 40 mmHg via small doses of norepinephrinhydrochlor ide, if necessary. Carfilzomib Moreover, CO2, bicarbonate or trometamol were adminis tered to adjust for pH fluctuations, if required. No blood transfusions were given. Systemic cooling was carried out by a heat e changer and additional ice bags were used for topical cooling to achieve a rectal temperature of 16 C within 30 minutes.
At a rectal temperature of 16 C CPB, anaesthesia and ventilation were interrupted and the rats were e posed to 45 minutes of DHCA to e pose all organs to ischae mia. After 45 minutes of DHCA the CPB no was re started and the rats were slowly rewarmed to a rectal temperature of at least 35. 5 C within 40 minutes. An infrared lamp was employed additionally, if required. By reaching 35. 5 C the rats were re perfused for further 60 minutes before CPB was terminated and organ harvesting took place. A schematic illustration of the e perimental time and temperature flow is shown in Figure 1. Harvesting of