The mMS is a multi-channel system of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA

The mMS is a multi-channel system of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), designed to fit into the spinal cord tissue gap after transection, with an outlet tubing system to apply negative pressure to the mMS thus sucking the spinal cord stumps into the honeycomb-structured holes. The stumps adhere to the microstructure of the mMS walls and remain in the mMS after removal of the vacuum. We show that the mMS preserves tissue integrity and allows axonal regrowth at 2, 5 and 19 weeks post lesion with no adverse tissue effects like in-bleeding

or cyst formation. Preliminary assessment of locomotor function in the open field suggested beneficial effects of the mMS. Additional inner micro-channels enable local substance delivery into the lesion check details selleck kinase inhibitor center via an attached osmotic minipump. We suggest that the mMS is a suitable device to adapt and stabilize the injured spinal cord after surgical resection of scar tissue (e.g., for chronic patients) or traumatic injuries with large tissue and bone damages. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective of the present

study is to investigate the efficacy of tobramycin dexamethasone combined with loteprednol for the treatment of anterior uveitis and its impact on serum IgG, IgA and IgE. 72 patients with anterior uveitis were randomly divided into study group and control group. The study group was treated with tobramycin dexamethasone and loteprednol, while the control group was only treated with tobramycin dexamethasone. All patients were followed up for six weeks. The clinical efficacy, healing time, side effects, serum IgG, IgA and IgE

changes were compared between the two groups. The clinical efficacy of the study group was significantly better than the control group; the healing time of the study group was shorter than the control group; the incidence of adverse reactions of the study group was 2.78% lower than 16.67% of the control group. There were significant differences between the two groups (P smaller than 0.05). After the treatment, Selleck NVP-BSK805 the serum IgG and IgE levels in the study group were significantly lower than the control group. However, IgA level was higher in the study group (P smaller than 0.05). The efficacy of tobramycin dexamethasone combined with loteprednol for treating anterior uveitis is certainly better than tobramycin dexamethasone alone. The serum IgG and IgE levels were significantly reduced and the serum IgA levels were significantly increased, so it should be widely applied in clinical practice.”
“Sirtuin deacetylases regulate diverse cellular pathways and influence disease processes. Our previous studies identified the brain-enriched sirtuin-2 (SIRT2) deacetylase as a potential drug target to counteract neurodegeneration.

anamensis sample of estimated canine crown heights is similar to

anamensis sample of estimated canine crown heights is similar to that of modern humans, suggesting a low degree of sexual dimorphism. Inclusion of estimates for KNM-KP 29287 and KNM-KP 29283 does not substantially increase either the estimate of overall canine size or variation for A. anamensis. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The human amygdala plays a key role in recognizing facial emotions and neurons in the monkey and human amygdala respond to the emotional expression of faces. However, it remains unknown whether these responses are driven primarily by properties of the stimulus or by the perceptual judgments of the perceiver. We investigated these questions by recording from over

200 single neurons in the amygdalae of 7 neurosurgical patients with implanted depth electrodes. We presented SRT2104 research buy degraded fear and happy faces and asked subjects to discriminate their emotion by button press. During trials where subjects INCB024360 in vivo responded correctly, we found neurons that distinguished

fear vs. happy emotions as expressed by the displayed faces. During incorrect trials, these neurons indicated the patients’ subjective judgment. Additional analysis revealed that, on average, all neuronal responses were modulated most by increases or decreases in response to happy faces, and driven predominantly by judgments about the eye region of the face stimuli. Following the same analyses, we showed that hippocampal neurons, unlike amygdala neurons, only encoded emotions but not subjective judgment. Our results suggest that the amygdala specifically encodes

the subjective judgment of emotional faces, but that it plays less of a role in simply encoding aspects of the image array. The conscious percept of the emotion shown in a face may thus arise from interactions between the amygdala and its connections within a distributed cortical network, a scheme also consistent with the long response latencies observed in human amygdala recordings.”
“Habitat loss and fragmentation are important factors determining animal population dynamics and spatial distribution. Such landscape changes can lead to the deleterious impact of a significant drop in the number of species, caused by critically reduced selleck inhibitor survival rates for organisms. In order to obtain a deeper understanding of the threeway interplay between habitat loss, fragmentation and survival rates, we propose here a spatially explicit multi-scaled movement model of individuals that search for habitat. By considering basic ecological processes, such as predation, starvation (outside the habitat area), and competition, together with dispersal movement as a link among habitat areas, we show that a higher survival rate is achieved in instances with a lower number of patches of larger areas. Our results demonstrate how movement may counterbalance the effects of habitat loss and fragmentation in altered landscapes.

HD patients report a variety of qualities of fatigue and the numb

HD patients report a variety of qualities of fatigue and the number of FQ is independently associated with symptoms of depression.”
“Glycolysis represents Sapanisertib mw one of the best-understood and most ancient metabolic pathways. In skeletal muscle fibres, energy for contraction is supplied by adenosine triphosphate via anaerobic glycolysis, the phosphocreatine shuttle and oxidative phosphorylation. In this respect, the anaerobic glycolytic pathway supports short duration performances of contractile tissues of high intensity. The catalytic elements associated with glycolysis

are altered during development, muscle differentiation, physiological adaptations and many pathological mechanisms, such as muscular dystrophy, diabetes mellitus and age-related muscle weakness. Although gel electrophoresis-based proteomics is afflicted with various biological and technical problems, it is an ideal analytical tool for studying the abundant

and mostly soluble enzymes that constitute the glycolytic system. This review critically examines the proteomic findings of recent large-scale studies of glycolytic enzymes and associated components in normal, transforming and degenerating muscle tissues. In the long term, proteins belonging to the glycolytic pathway may be useful as biomarkers of muscle adaptations and pathophysiological mechanisms and can be employed to improve diagnostics and in the identification of novel therapeutic mTOR inhibitor targets in neuromuscular SBE-β-CD disorders. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier B.V.”
“In the silkworm

Bombyx mori and other insects, prothoracicotropic hormone (PITH) plays a central role in controlling molting and metamorphosis by stimulating the prothoracic glands to synthesize and release the molting hormone ecdysone. Using an AcNPV (Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus)mediated transient gene transfer system, we identified a cis-regulatory element that participates in the decision to switch expression of PTTH on or off in PTTH-producing neurosecretory cells (PTPCs). The nucleotide sequence of this cis-regulatory element is similar to a cis-regulatory element that participates in direction of expression of diapause hormone-pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide gene (DH-PBAN) (Shiomi et al., 2007). Furthermore, we found that B. mori Pitx (BmPitx), a bicoid-like homeobox transcription factor, binds the element and activates PITH expression. Therefore, we propose that the cell-specific expression of two neuropeptide hormone genes, PITH and DH-PBAN, is activated by the Pitx transcription factor, which may act as a pan-activator in the insect neuroendocrine system and in vertebrate pituitary cells. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A high-quality diet is one of the foundations of health and well-being.

Parallel sheet formation in water is observed when L-residue stra

Parallel sheet formation in water is observed when L-residue strands are attached to the CHDA-Gly unit with either of the two absolute configurations.”
“Although reports have demonstrated good early outcomes with human acellular dermal matrix selleck products even when used for complex, contaminated defects, no long-term outcomes have been reported. The authors reviewed the long-term outcomes of 13 patients who had complex torso reconstructions that included human acellular dermal matrix. All patients were at increased risk for mesh-related complications. Eight patients died as a result of progression

of their oncologic disease at a mean of 258 days postoperatively. The mean follow-up for the remaining five patients was 43.7 months. Six patients had early complications (none were human acellular dermal matrix-related) and were reported on previously. Two patients had developed complications since the initial report. One patient developed a flap donor-site seroma remote from the reconstruction site, and another developed a recurrent ventral hernia. No

patients have required additional surgery for human acellular dermal matrix-related complications. This follow-up report indicates that human acellular dermal matrix repair of large, complex torso defects can result in good long-term outcomes even when patients are at high risk for mesh-related complications. (Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 123: 192, 2009.)”
“Purpose: Minimally invasive management of small renal tumors has become more common. We compared the results of partial nephrectomy by video-assisted minilaparotomy surgery (VAMS), open, and laparoscopic techniques. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively Selleck Dactolisib compared clinicopathological, oncological, and functional outcomes in 271 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy for renal tumors at one institution

from 1993 to 2007; including 138 by VAMS, 102 by open, and 31 by laparoscopic technique. Results: Mean follow-up was 47.7 +/- 29.1 months. No statistically significant differences in the three groups were found in tumor size, tumor location, estimated blood loss, complication rate, preoperative glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and GFR at last follow-up. Ischemic time was shorter in the open (26.9 min) and VAMS (29.3 min) groups than in the laparoscopic group (31.0 min, p=0.021). Time to normal S63845 price diet and hospital stay were shorter in the VAMS (1.8 days and 5.4 days) and laparoscopic (1.8 days and 4.7 days) groups than in the open group (2.4 days and 7.3 days, p=0.036 and p<0.001, respectively). Of 180 patients with cancer, positive surgical margins occurred in 2 of 82 patients (2.4%) in the VAMS group, none of 75 patients in the open group, and 3 of 23 patients (13.0%) in the laparoscopic group (p=0.084). In the VAMS, open, and laparoscopic groups, 5-year disease-free survival was 94.8%, 95.8%, and 90.3% (p=0.485), and 5-year cancer-specific survival was 96.3%, 98.6%, and 100%, respectively (p=0.452).

“Five soils characterised by different agro-forest

“Five soils characterised by different agro-forest

managements, typical of Mediterranean environment selleck chemicals llc and with increasing human impact were chosen in Sardinia (Italy): two vineyards with different management systems, a rotation hay crop-pasture and a forest (Quercus suber L.). The study aimed to investigate the relationships between C storage and microbial functionality in soil under different managements. Pools of total organic C and microbial biomass C were determined, as well as the loss of organic C due to microbial respiration (basal and cumulative) and several microbial indices (metabolic, mineralization, and microbial quotient) as indicators of the microbial efficiency in the use of energy and the degree of substrate limitation for soil microbes. Enzymes were chosen on their relevance in the C (beta-cellobiohydrolase, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, beta-glucosidase, alpha-glucosidase), Selleckchem HSP990 N (leucine aminopeptidase), S (arylsulphatase) and P (acid phosphatase) cycling and were used as indicators of functional diversity in soil. Organic C pools and enzyme activities on average increased noticeably in soils with a lower human impact showing the highest values in

forest and the lowest in the vineyards, following the trend of organic matter availability. The trend in functional diversity reflected the increase of microbial pool and organic C SBC-115076 cost availability: the vineyards showed a lower Shannon’s diversity index, whilst pasture and forest sites reached the maximum levels of functional diversity. These soils showed an increase of microbial efficiency in the use of available resources

and the decrease of substrate limitation for soil microbes.”
“Several new fossil remains of Felidae from the late Miocene (Turolian age, MN 13, local zone M2) locality of Las Casiones (near the village of Villalba Baja, Teruel, Spain) are studied in the present paper. This felid community includes the machairodontines Amphimachairodus giganteus, Paramachaerodus orientalis, and Metailurus major, and the felines Pristifelis attica and a small, undetermined species, previously unknown in the late Miocene. With this high diversity of felids, the environment of Las Casiones was probably relatively vegetated, with shrubs and trees that allowed smaller felid species to avoid dangerous encounters with the larger ones.”
“This work intended to create a nanostructured biomaterial that would bind albumin in a selective and reversible way in order to inhibit the adsorption of other blood proteins and therefore minimize activation of coagulation. Different levels of C18 ligand have been immobilized on poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA). We hypothesize that samples with intermediate amounts of C18 ligand would allow albumin to recognize them and bind through its hydrophobic pockets specific for long chain fatty acids.

All filters in the series showed evidence of filter tilt and embe

All filters in the series showed evidence of filter tilt and embedding of the filter hook into the IVC wall. Average filter

tilt from the Z-axis was 19 degrees (range 8-56). Filters observed in the case study were either Bard G2X (n=6) or Cook Celect (n=7). Average filter dwell time was 421 days (range 47-1053). There were no major complications observed. ConclusionThe rigid forceps technique can be readily emulated and is a safe and effective selleckchem technique to remove severely tilted and embedded IVC filters. The development of this technique across both institutions has increased the successful filter removal rate, with perceived benefits to the safety profile of our IVC filter programme.”
“PURPOSE: To address the misrepresentation of the eye in retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and to examine the effect of this misrepresentation on retinal thickness measurements.\n\nDESIGN: Prospective case series.\n\nMETHODS: Five subjects with recent orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and normal eye examinations were consented from the clinics of the Duke Eye Center. Each subject had both eyes imaged using a retinal spectral-domain OCT system and ocular biometry measured. Two types of individualized

optical models of the subject eyes-numerical and analytical-were used to determine the spatial paths of the OCT A-scans. These paths were Used to reorient the A-scans in the associated retinal OCT images and generate corrected images. Using curvature as a general measure of shape, the radii of curvature GSK461364 molecular weight of the retinal pigment epithelium in the original and corrected OCT images were compared to the ocular radii of curvature in the MRI images. Differences between the retinal thickness maps derived from the original and corrected OCT images were then determined.\n\nRESULTS: The retinal curvatures were substantially flatter in BMS-754807 the original OCT than in the MRI images (mean paired difference: 52.8 +/- 41.8 mm, P < .001). Correcting the OCT images decreased the paired differences between OCT and MRI (numerical: 1.6 +/- 2.3 mm, P = .091; analytical:

1.9 +/- 4.3 mm, P = .278). Retinal thickness measurements between the corrected and uncorrected images differed, with a root mean square difference of 5.61 mu m over the entire 6-mm extent of the image; this difference was greater peripherally (6.02 mu m) than centrally (2.54 mu m).\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Optically based algorithms can be used to correct the shape of the retina as represented in OCT; this correction makes OCT more consistent with other clinical imaging techniques. Resultant retinal thickness maps were minimally affected by the change in shape. Ocular shape correction should be considered in future development of posterior segment OCT-based morphologic measurements. (C) 2013 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Long-term postnatal neurodevelopmental follow-up should confirm t

Long-term postnatal neurodevelopmental follow-up should confirm the data from prenatal investigation of fetal

“As common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) spreads across Europe and other regions, it is becoming both a selleck chemicals llc health and an economic threat. To better understand which environmental conditions facilitate the spread of the invasive species, in 2010, a greenhouse experiment was conducted determining the effects of various nitrogen levels (10, 50 and 100 kg N/ha), soil moisture level (low and high) and competition levels (no competition, medium competition and high competition) on the growth parameters of ragweed. Single-grown ragweed responded favourably to the medium nitrogen and water increase, whereas the ragweed growth parameters in competition stands increased only when high levels of nitrogen and water were added.

High competition reduced the total dry matter of ragweed by up to 83%, but the ragweed continued to increase its relative growth rate during the full-flowering stage and selleck kinase inhibitor allocate its dry matter to reproductive parts, producing up to 70 seeds per plant. Ragweed is a poor competitor when there is high resource availability; however, under disturbance and in the shortage of nutrients and water conditions, the intensity of competition decreases and the ragweed performance is minimally affected. The addition of medium levels of nitrogen to promote the growth of competitive species, prevention of disturbance

and establishment of plant communities with stress-tolerant species is measures that should help to prevent the further spread of ragweed.”
“Exposure to chronic stressors is associated with accelerated biological aging as indicated by reduced leukocyte telomere length (LTL). This impact could be because of chronic overactivation of the body’s physiological stress systems. This study examined the associations between LTL and the immune system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system. LTL was assessed in 2936 adults from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Inflammation markers (interleukin-6, c-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha), hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis indicators (salivary cortisol awakening PHA-848125 clinical trial curve [area under the curve indicators, with respect to the ground and increase], evening levels, 0.5 mg dexamethasone cortisol suppression ratio), and autonomic nervous system measures (heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, pre-ejection period) were determined. Linear regression analyses were performed and adjusted for sociodemographic, lifestyle and clinical factors. Shorter LTL was significantly associated with higher c-reactive protein, interleukin-6, area under the curve with respect to increase, and heart rate. A cumulative index score was calculated based on the number of highest tertiles of these 4 stress markers.

In patients with clinically manifest vascular disease, hypertrigl

In patients with clinically manifest vascular disease, hypertriglyceridemia and metabolic syndrome AS1842856 price are frequently present, but the contribution of these single nucleotide polymorphisms to plasma triglycerides, effect modification by obesity and risk of recurrent vascular events is unknown in these patients. Methods: Prospective cohort study of 5547 patients with vascular disease. Rs964184 (APOA5-A4-C3-A1 gene complex) was genotyped, and we evaluated the relation with plasma lipid levels,

presence of metabolic syndrome and the risk for new vascular events. Results: The minor allele of rs964184 was strongly associated with log plasma triglycerides (beta 0.12; 95%CI 0.10-0.15, p = 1.1*10(-19)), and was also associated with 0.03 mmol/L lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (95%CI 0.01-0.04), and 0.14 mmol/L higher non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (95%CI 0.09-0.20). The minor allele frequency increased from 10.9% in patients with plasma triglycerides smaller than 1 mmol/L to 24.6% in patients with plasma triglycerides between 4 and 10 mmol/L. The relation between rs964184 and plasma triglycerides was modified by body mass index in patients with one minor allele (beta 0.02; (95%CI -0.04-0.09) if body mass index smaller than 24 kg/m2, beta 0.17 (95%CI 0.12-0.22) if body mass index bigger than 27 kg/m2, p for interaction = 0.02). The prevalence of the metabolic

syndrome increased from 52% for patients with two copies of the major allele to 62% for patients with two copies of the minor allele (p = 0.01). Rs964184 was not related with recurrent vascular events (HR 0.99; 95%CI 0.86-1.13). Conclusion: The single EGFR assay nucleotide polymorphism rs964184 (APOA5-A4-C3-A1)

is associated with elevated plasma triglycerides concentrations in patients with clinically manifest vascular disease. In carriers of one minor allele, the effect on plasma triglycerides was modified by body mass index. There is no relation between check details rs964184 and recurrent vascular events in these patients.”
“Purpose This study attempted to determine the extent to which surgeon age influences treatment patterns for distal radius fractures (DRFs). We hypothesized that younger surgeons perform open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) for DRFs among elderly individuals more frequently than older surgeons, who employ a wider range of treatment modalities. Methods We identified 61,314 Medicare beneficiaries who experienced DRFs and the 12,823 surgeons who performed ORIF, external fixation, pinning, or closed reduction on them during 2007. We examined the effect of surgeon age on DRF treatment pattern, controlling for patient characteristics and other surgeon factors using multinomial logistic regression. We then stratified our analysis by American Society for Surgery of the Hand membership to more closely examine the influence of surgeon specialization on the association between surgeon age and DRF treatment.

Here we present a new concept of acoustophoresis, based on the mo

Here we present a new concept of acoustophoresis, based on the morphing of a deformable HSP990 reflector, which exploits the low reaction forces and low relaxation time of a liquid with enhanced surface tension through the use of thin overlaid membrane. An acoustically induced, mobile deformation (dimple)

on the reflector surface enhances the acoustic field emitted by a line of discretized emitters and enables the countinuos motion of heavy levitated samples. With such interplay of emitters and reflecting soft-structure, a 5 mm steel sphere (0.5 grams) was contactlessly transported in air solely by acoustophoresis.”
“OBJECTIVES To evaluate the use of penile circular skin graft versus flap as a ventral onlay for bulbo-penile Selleckchem Volasertib stricture urethra. MATERIAL AND\n\nMETHODS Between 2003 and 2009, 37 patients with bulbo-penile stricture were randomized to penile methods circular skin graft (PCG = 18) or flap (PCF = 19). Inclusion criteria included postinstrumentation or idiopathic stricture. Exclusion criteria were unhealthy skin and previous urethrotomy/urethroplasty. Patients had urethrogram at three

weeks, three months, one year, and urethroscopy when needed. Any subsequent urethrotomy/urethroplasty was considered a failure. Chi-square and Student’s t test were used for analysis.\n\nRESULTS Patients’ ages were 45.3 (range: 30 – 65) and 45.5 (35-60) yr in PCG&PCF respectively. Stricture length was 15.2 (10-22) & 14.1 (9-21) cm in PCG&PCF respectively. The

stricture was postinstrumentation in 9 and 11 and idiopathic in 9 and 8 patients in PCG&PCF respectively. Mean follow up was 36.2 (12-60) and 37.1 (range: 13-24) months Z-DEVD-FMK in vivo in PCG and PCF respectively. Operative time was significantly shorter in PCG than in PCF (203.3 and 281.6 min, respectively; P = .000). Early postoperative complications were similar in both groups. Superficial skin necrosis occurred only in the PCF group (3 cases). Late complications of mild postvoid dribbling occurred similarly in both groups. One patient in PCF had a urethro-cutaneaous fistula at the level of fossa navicularis that was repaired later. Stricture recurred in 5 (27.7%) and 4(21%) patients in PCG and PCF, respectively (P = .249). Four patients had visual internal urethrotomy (2, 2), four needed anastmotic urethroplasty (2, 2) in PCG and PCF, respectively, and one needed buccal mucosal graft in the PCG group.\n\nCONCLUSIONS At intermediate follow-up, both penile circular graft and flap had similar and high success as a ventral onlay for repair of long bulbo-penile stricture with a low rate of complications. UROLOGY 77: 1232-1237, 2011. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc.”
“Mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase II (COII) gene sequences of Malaysian Cercopithecidae were examined to ascertain their phylogenetic relationships. Colobinae were represented by the genera Presbytis, Trachypithecus and Nasalis, while the genus Macaca represented Cercopithecinae.

Combined ab initio calculations and detailed magnetization dynami

Combined ab initio calculations and detailed magnetization dynamics studies reveal the unprecedented relaxation mediated via the second excited state within a new DyNCN system comprising a valence-localized carbon coordinated to a single dysprosium(III) ion. The essentially C-2v symmetry of the Dy-III ion results in a new relaxation mechanism, hitherto unknown for mononuclear

DyIII complexes, opening new Adavosertib purchase perspectives for means of enhancing the anisotropy contribution to the spin-relaxation barrier.”
“TORC1 regulates growth and metabolism, in part, by influencing transcriptional programs. Here, we identify REPTOR and REPTOR-BP as transcription factors downstream of TORC1 that are required for similar to 90% of the transcriptional induction that occurs upon TORC1 inhibition in Drosophila. Thus, REPTOR and REPTOR-BP selleck inhibitor are major effectors of the transcriptional stress response induced

upon TORC1 inhibition, analogous to the role of FOXO downstream of Akt. We find that, when TORC1 is active, it phosphorylates REPTOR on Ser527 and Ser530, leading to REPTOR cytoplasmic retention. Upon TORC1 inhibition, REPTOR becomes dephosphorylated in a PP2A-dependent manner, shuttles into the nucleus, joins its partner REPTOR-BP to bind target genes, and activates their transcription. In vivo functional analysis using knockout flies reveals that REPTOR and REPTOR-BP play critical roles in maintaining energy homeostasis and promoting animal survival upon nutrient restriction.”
“Murphy KT, Allen AM, Chee A, Naim T, Lynch GS. Disruption of muscle renin-angiotensin system in AT(1a)(-/-) mice enhances muscle function despite reducing muscle mass

but compromises repair after injury. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 303: R321-R331, 2012. First published June 6, 2012; doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00007.2012.-The role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in vasoregulation is well established, but a localized RAS exists in multiple tissues and exerts diverse functions including autonomic control and thermogenesis. The role of the RAS in the maintenance and function of skeletal muscle is not well understood, Selleck HSP990 especially the role of angiotensin peptides, which appear to contribute to muscle atrophy. We tested the hypothesis that mice lacking the angiotensin type 1A receptor (AT(1A)(-/-)) would exhibit enhanced whole body and skeletal muscle function and improved regeneration after severe injury. Despite 18- to 20-wk-old AT(1A)(-/-) mice exhibiting reduced muscle mass compared with controls (P < 0.05), the tibialis anterior (TA) muscles produced a 25% higher maximum specific (normalized) force (P < 0.05).