71 An additional advantage of the FFM is the deconstruction of the heterogeneous DSM-IV-TR personality disorders into their component parts. Clinicians, when treating a personality disorder, do not attempt to address the entire personality structure all at once. They focus instead on underlying components, such as the dysregulated anger, the oppositionality, or the manipulativeness of persons diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. This more specific assessment available with
the FFM could be more useful for clinicians and third-party payers tracking clinical progress.71 A notable failing of the DSM-IV-TR personality disorder #Dasatinib Src keyword# nomenclature has been a dearth of empirically based therapies. The primary purpose of the APA diagnostic manual Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical is to facilitate treatment planning.2,78 The APA has been developing practice guidelines for over 20 years for each of the mental disorders included within DSM-IV-TR, and to date guidelines have been published for only one personality disorder: borderline.99 One possible Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical reason for the absence of manualized treatment programs for the APA personality disorders is their complex heterogeneity.71,100 Each DSM-IV-TR
personality syndrome is a compound assortment of different traits.73 Two patients meeting the diagnostic criteria for the same personality disorder may at times have Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical only one single feature in common.82 Given this degree of variability within each diagnosis, it is understandably difficult to develop a common or consistent treatment plan.70
The factor analytically derived FFM is better suited for treatment planning because the domains are considerably more distinct and homogeneous. Extraversion and agreeableness are concerned specifically with social, interpersonal dysfunction. Interpersonal models of therapy, marital-family therapy, and group therapy Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical would be particularly suitable for them. In contrast, neuroticism provides information with respect to mood, anxiety, and emotional dyscontrol. There are very clear pharmacologic implications for mood and anxiety dysregulation and emotional Ceritinib manufacturer instability (eg, anxiolytics, antidepressants, and/or mood stabilizers) that would not apply to the other domains of personality. Maladaptively high AV-951 openness implies cognitive-perceptual aberrations, and so would likely have pharmacologic implications (ie, neuroleptics) that are quite different from those for neuroticism. The domain of conscientiousness has specific relevance to occupational dysfunction. Maladaptive high levels involve workaholism, perfectionism, and compulsivity, whereas low levels involve laxness, negligence, and irresponsibility with potentially their own specific pharmacologic treatment implications (eg, methylphenidates101).