In the present study, we assessed the expression of Cathepsin B a

In the present study, we assessed the expression of Cathepsin B and its functions in EC. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine Cathepsin B expression in 76 paraffin-embedded endometrial tumor tissues. Lentiviral packing short this website hairpin RNA (shRNA) was transfected into HEC-1A cells to build a stable Cathepsin B knockdown cell line. The cellular levels of Cathepsin B mRNA and protein were detected by real-time PCR and western immunoblotting.

The functions of Cathepsin B in EC cells were measured by MTT, migration and invasion assays. In additon, tumorigenicity assays were established in nude mice to study tumor growth in vivo. The results of our study showed that Cathepsin B was overexpressed in EC tissues compared with normal endometrium and endometrial atypical hyperplasia. Depletion of Cathepsin B in vitro inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Tumor formation assays confirmed that suppression of Cathepsin B inhibited the proliferation potential of HEC-1A cells in vivo, demonstrated by lower proliferation rates. These results suggest that Cathepsin B may act as an oncogene in EC, with the potential to provide a new therapeutic target for treating endometrial malignancy.”
“The onset of motion in an otherwise continuous sound elicits a prominent

auditory evoked potential, the so-called motion onset response (MOR). The MOR has recently been shown to be modulated by stimulus-dependent factors, buy LY294002 such as velocity, while the possible role of task-dependent factors has remained unclear.

Here, the effect of spatial attention on the MOR was investigated in 19 listeners. In each trial, the subject initially heard a free-field sound, consisting of a stationary period and a subsequent period of motion. Then, two successive stationary test tones were presented that differed in location and pitch. WZB117 Subjects either judged whether or not the starting and final positions of the preceded motion matched the positions of the two test tones (‘motion-focused condition’), or whether or not the test tones were identical in pitch, irrespective of the preceded motion stimulus (‘baseline condition’). These two tasks were presented in separate experimental blocks. The performance level in both tasks was similar. However, especially later portions of the MOR were significantly increased in amplitude when auditory motion was task-relevant. Cortical source localization indicated that this extra activation originated in dorsofrontal areas that have been proposed to be part of the dorsal auditory processing stream. These results support the assumption that auditory motion processing is based on a complex interaction of both stimulus-specific and attentional processes. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The CD133 epitope has been identified as a tumor marker for the purification of a subpopulation of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells demonstrating cancer stem cell phenotypes.

The results showed that all the AgNO3 (20-40 wt %) doped PVA film

The results showed that all the AgNO3 (20-40 wt %) doped PVA films presented an exothermic peak at 182 degrees C. And the temperature of exothermic peak kept constant for various contents of AgNO3. Meanwhile, the phase composition of the films was greatly affected by the heat treatment temperature. Ag particles were generated during the heat treatment process, and the content of Ag particles increased with increasing the temperature. The YM155 research buy resistivity of

PVA/AgNO3 films decreased with increasing the temperature. And a sharp decrease appeared at 155-165 degrees C due to the generation and contact of a mass of Ag particles at this temperature. The thermal-electrical results suggested the applicability of these materials in temperature sensor, for example, critical temperature resistor thermistor. (C) 2011 Wiley selleckchem Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 122: 813-818, 2011″
“Papular purpuric gloves and socks syndrome (PPGSS) is a self-limited, often febrile illness with symmetric edema and erythema of the hands and feet; papular, petechial, and purpuric acral dermatosis; and mucosal lesions in children

and young adults. Most of the cases of PPGSS have been reported to be caused by parvovirus B19 and other viruses. This study describes a case resulting from Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in an adolescent male and

reviews the literature.”
“This study provides a new understanding of cellulose oxygen (delta O-18(cel))isotopic variability in various plant macrofossils, particularly Sphagnum, derived from an similar to 9200 year succession of Holocene peat in Mer Bleue Bog, Ottawa, Apoptosis inhibitor Ontario, Canada. The variation of delta O-18(cel) isotopic composition, commonly used as a proxy of paleotemperature and paleoprecipitation, was compared between (1) Sphagnum and other plant macrofossils down core and (2) Sphagnum species within and between samples.\n\nThe most common Sphagnum species encountered was Sphagnum magellanicum von Bridel, 1798 with lesser amounts of Sphagnum capillifolium (Breutel) Steudel, 1824, Sphagnum fuscum Klinggraff, 1872 and Sphagnum angustifolium Jensen, 1896. There is a statistically significant offset in delta O-18(cel) isotopic values (mean offset: 1.6 parts per thousand, standard deviation = 3.2%, n = 19) obtained from Sphagnum in comparison with values obtained from other plant macrofossils, particularly rhizomes. The delta O-18(cel) isotopic offset (mean offset: 0.1 parts per thousand, standard deviation = 1.0 parts per thousand, n = 11) between Sphagnum specimens from the same core horizons, irrespective of the species analyzed, was statistically insignificant at > 95%.

0 percent), but lower among those with single sexual partners

0 percent), but lower among those with single sexual partners Blebbistatin Transmembrane Transporters inhibitor (15.0 percent).

A history of needle injuries, jaundice and injections from quacks were statistically significant when these risks were combined with a sexual risk for hepatitis B virus infection (p-value is less than 0.05).\n\nConclusion: Sexual transmission of hepatitis B was not found to be an important factor. Preventive strategies should include universal hepatitis B vaccination and discouraging the indiscriminate use of sharp objects and unauthorised medical practices.”
“The etiology of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the capitellum is unknown but has generally been attributed to repetitive microtrauma or ischemia. We present a case report of a handball player with OCD of the capitellum. Preoperatively, he complained of elbow pain. CT imaging showed the injury. This patient was treated with mosaicplasty harvested from the lateral femoral condyle. He returned to his full former sports activities within 6 months of surgery. The continuity of the cartilage layer between the osteochondral graft and the capitellum was shown selleck on CT arthrogram images at 12 months after surgery. We believe that mosaicplasty gives successful results with end-stage OCD of the capitellum. (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Masson

“There are hundreds of biological resource centers (BRCS) around tire world, holding many little-studied microorganisms. The proportion of bacterial strains that is well represented in the sequence and literature databases may be as low as 1%. This body of unexplored diversity represents an untapped source of useful strains and derived products. However, a modicum of phenotypic data is available for almost all the bacterial strains held by BRCS around the world. It is at the phenotypic level that our knowledge of the well-studied strains of bacteria and the many yet to be studied strains intersect. Thus, the might leverage the phenotypic data from the data-poor bacteria with the omics data front the data-rich bacteria, using our knowledge of their evolutionary relationships,

to map the metabolic networks of the little-known bacteria. This systems biology-based approach is a new way to Epigenetics inhibitor explore the diversity harbored in BRCS.”
“Sensitivity and elasticity analysis of population projection matrices (PPMs) are established tools in the analysis of structured populations, allowing comparison of the contributions made by different demographic rates to population growth. In some commonly used structures of PPM, however, there are mathematically inevitable patterns in the relative sensitivity and elasticity of certain demographic rates. We take a simulation approach to investigate these mathematical constraints for a range of PPM models. Our results challenge some previously proposed constraints on sensitivity and elasticity. We also identify constraints beyond those that have already been proven mathematically and promote them as candidates for future mathematical proof.

Decreased levels of testosterone in the peripheral blood and dimi

Decreased levels of testosterone in the peripheral blood and diminished volume size of testes are found in patients suffering from alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Erectile dysfunction in patients with liver cirrhosis needs further evaluation.”
“Thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) is known to stimulate colonic cancer cell proliferation, although the mechanism has not been clarified. In this study, we compared the expression levels of Kv7.1 K+ channels between human colorectal cancer tissue and the accompanying non-tumor mucosa. Kv7.1 proteins were found to be consistently up-regulated in the cancer tissues from different patients.

Kv7.1 was also expressed in human colonic cancer cell lines. Treatment of colonic cancer cells with 9,11-epithio-11,12-methano-thromboxane A(2) click here (STA(2)), a stable analogue of TXA(2), significantly increased whole-cell K+ currents sensitive to chromanol 293B, an inhibitor of Kv7.1 channels, in parallel with an increased expression of Kv7.1 proteins. In contrast, TXB2, an inactive metabolite of TXA(2), had no effects on expression level and function of Kv7.1. A TXA(2) receptor antagonist (SQ29548) and an inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (Rp-8-Br-MB-cAMPS) inhibited STA(2)-induced DMXAA concentration increases in both Kv7.1 expression and chromanol 293B-sensitive

K+ currents. Interestingly, STA(2)-stimulated proliferation of colonic cancer cells was inhibited by chromanol 293B. These results suggest that Kv7.1 channels are involved in the TXA(2)-induced cancer cell proliferation and that they are up-regulated by the TXA(2) receptor-mediated cAMP pathway.”
“Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) represents a prodromal stage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), especially when additional cognitive domains are affected (Petersen et al., 2009). Thus, single-domain amnestic MCI (sdaMCI) and multiple-domain-amnestic MCI (mdaMCI) biomarkers are important for enabling early interventions to help slow down progression of the disease. Recording event-related potentials

(ERPs) is a non-invasive and inexpensive measure of brain activity associated with cognitive processes, and it is of interest from a clinical point of view. The ERP technique may also be useful for obtaining early sdaMCI and mdaMCI biomarkers because ERPs are sensitive to impairment in processes that are not manifested at behavioral Wnt activity or clinical levels. In the present study, EEG activity was recorded in 25 healthy participants and 30 amnestic MCI patients (17 sdaMCI and 13 mdaMCI) while they performed a Simon task. The ERPs associated with visuospatial (N2 posterior-contralateral – N2pc -) and motor (lateralized readiness potential – LRP -) processes were examined. The N2pc amplitude was smaller in participants with mdaMCI than in healthy participants, which indicated a decline in the correlates of allocation of attentional resources to the target stimulus. In addition, N2pc amplitude proved to be a moderately good biomarker of mdaMCI subtype (0.77 sensitivity, 0.76 specificity).

Postural differences between the genders increased in the high mo

Postural differences between the genders increased in the high mouse position and decreased in the center mouse location.\n\nConclusions: When a workstation is adjusted per current guidelines differences in upper extremity force, muscle activity and postural factors still exist between genders. CYT387 concentration However, these were often

stronger when subjects were grouped by anthropometry suggesting that perhaps the computer input devices themselves should be scaled to be more in proportion with the anthropometry and strength of the user. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background Pancreatectomy with venous reconstruction (VR) for pancreatic cancer (PC) is occurring more commonly. Few studies have examined

the long-term patency of the superior mesenteric-portal vein confluence following reconstruction. Methods From 2007 to 2013, patients who underwent pancreatic resection with VR for PC were classified by type of reconstruction. Patency of VR was assessed using surveillance computed tomographic imaging obtained from date of surgery to last follow-up. Results VR was performed in 43 patients and included MI-503 price the following: tangential resection with primary repair (7, 16 %) or saphenous vein patch (9, 21 %); segmental resection with splenic vein division and either primary anastomosis (10, 23 %) or internal jugular vein interposition (8, 19%); or segmental resection with splenic vein preservation and either primary anastomosis S3I-201 price (3, 7 %) or interposition grafting (6, 14 %). All patients were instructed to take aspirin after surgery; low molecular weight heparin was not routinely used. An occluded VR was found in four (9 %) of the 43 patients at a median follow-up of 13 months; median time to detection of thrombosis in the four patients was 72 days (range 16-238). Conclusions Pancreatectomy with VR can be performed with high patency rates. The optimal postoperative pharmacologic therapy to prevent thrombosis requires further investigation.”
“An important goal in studies of protein aggregation is to obtain an understanding of the structural diversity that is characteristic of

amyloid fibril and protofibril structures at the molecular level. In this study, what to our knowledge are novel assays based on time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy decay and dynamic quenching measurements of a fluorophore placed at different specific locations in the primary structure of a small protein, barstar, have been used to determine the extent to which the protein sequence participates in the structural core of protofibrils. The fluorescence measurements reveal the structural basis of how modulating solvent polarity results in the tuning of the protofibril conformation from a pair of parallel beta-sheets in heat-induced protofibrils to a single parallel beta-sheet in trifluorethanol-induced protofibrils.

Conclusions: The emergence of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains wi

Conclusions: The emergence of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains with multiple resistance Repotrectinib cost needs permanent monitoring of antibiotic susceptibility patterns of clinical isolates. We have found that ceftazidime is not a suitable drug for choosing the treatment of pneumococcal infections.”
“One year ago, we discovered a new family of insect RYamide neuropeptides, which has the C-terminal consensus sequence FFXXXRYamide, and which is widely occurring in most insects, including the fruitfly Drosophila

melanogaster and the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (F. Hauser et al., J. Proteome Res. 9 (2010) 5296-5310). Here, we identify a Drosophila G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) coded for by gene CG5811 and its Tribolium GPCR ortholog as insect RYamide receptors. The Drosophila RYamide receptor is equally well activated (EC(50), 1 x 10(-9) M) by the two Drosophila RYamide neuropeptides: RYamide-1 (PVFFVASRYamide) and RYamide-2 (NEHFFLGSRYamide), both contained in a preprohormone coded for by gene CG40733. The Tribolium receptor shows a somewhat higher affinity to Tribolium RYamide-2 (ADAFFLGPRYamide; EC(50), 5 x 10(-9) M) than to Tribolium RYamide-1 (VQNLATFKTMMRYamide; EC(50), 7 x 10(-8)

M), which might be due to the fact that the last peptide HSP signaling pathway does not completely follow the RYamide consensus sequence rule. There are other neuropeptides in insects that have similar C-terminal sequences (RWamide or RFamide), such as the FMRFamides, sulfakinins, myosuppressins, neuropeptides F, and the various short neuropeptides

F. Amazingly, these neuropeptides show no cross-reactivity to the Tribolium RYamide receptor, while the Drosophila RYamide receptor is only very slightly activated by high concentrations (>10(-6) M) of neuropeptide F and short neuropeptide F-1, showing that the two RYamide receptors are quite specific Etomoxir for activation by insect RYamides, and that the sequence FFXXXRYamide is needed for effective insect RYamide receptor activation. Phylogenetic tree analyses and other amino acid sequence comparisons show that the insect RYamide receptors are not closely related to any other known insect or invertebrate/vertebrate receptors, including mammalian neuropeptide Y and insect neuropeptide F and short neuropeptide F receptors. Gene expression data published in Flybase ( show that the Drosophila CG5811 gene is significantly expressed in the hindgut of adult flies, suggesting a role of insect RYamides in digestion or water reabsorption. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The microbial diversity of a deep saline aquifer used for geothermal heat storage in the North German Basin was investigated.

Our findings suggested that FGFR inhibition could delay breast tu

Our findings suggested that FGFR inhibition could delay breast tumor progression, impair lung metastasis and break immunosuppression by effecting on tumor microenvironment, which may provide a promising therapeutic approach for breast cancer patient.”
“Photoreceptor outer segments (OSs) are essential for our visual perception, and selleck take either rod or cone forms. The cell biological basis

for the formation of rods is well established; however, the mechanism of cone formation is ill characterized. While Xenopus rods are called rods, they exhibit cone-shaped OSs during the early process of development. To visualize the dynamic reorganization of disk membranes, opsin and peripherin/rds were fused to a fluorescent protein, Dendra2, and expressed in early developing rod photoreceptors, in which OSs

are still cone-shaped. Dendra2 is a fluorescent protein which can be converted from green to red irreversibly, and thus allows spatiotemporal labeling of proteins. Using a photoconversion technique, we found that disk membranes are assembled at the base of cone-shaped OSs. After incorporation into disks, however, Opsin-Dendra2 was also trafficked from old to new disk membranes, consistent with the hypothesis that retrograde trafficking of membrane components contributes to the larger disk membrane observed toward the base of the cone-shaped OS. Such retrograde trafficking is cargo-specific and was not observed for peripherin/rds-Dendra2. The trafficking is unlikely mediated by diffusion, since the disk membranes Microbiology inhibitor have a closed configuration, as evidenced by CNGA1 labeling of the plasma membrane. Consistent with retrograde trafficking, the axoneme, which potentially GSK3326595 datasheet mediates retrograde intraflagellar trafficking, runs through the entire axis of OSs. This study provides an insight into the role of membrane reorganization in developing photoreceptor OSs, and proves that retrograde trafficking of membrane cargoes can occur there. J. Comp. Neurol. 522:3577-3589, 2014. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Seven benzo[c]phenanthridines, synthetic

or isolated from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium root bark, were evaluated against Leishmania amazonensis axenic amastigotes. Five of them were considered leishmanicidal, with IC50 values ranging from 0.03 to 0.54 mu M, and were evaluated on intramacrophagic amastigotes of L. amazonensis. Chelerythrine displayed the best activity (IC50 = 0.5 mu M), which was in the same range as the reference compound amphotericin B (IC50 = 0.4 mu M). In vivo studies with chelerythrine, avicine, and fagaridine on a model of mice cutaneous leishmaniasis resulted in the identification of fagaridine as the most active compound. Fagaridine decreased the parasitic burden more than 50% at the 3rd and 6th weeks after the end of treatment.”
“The genome of Sorangium cellulosum has recently been completely sequenced, and it is the largest bacterial genome sequenced so far. In their report, Schneiker et al.

“Hexavalent chromium is a human respiratory carcinogen tha

“Hexavalent chromium is a human respiratory carcinogen that undergoes intracellular activation in vivo primarily via reduction with ascorbate. Replication of Cr-adducted DNA triggers mismatch repair that generates toxic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) as secondary lesions. Here, we examined the intranuclear distribution of chromate-induced breaks and a central DSB signaling branch targeting histone H2AX. Using ascorbate-restored cells (H460 human lung epithelial

cells, normal human lung and normal mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs)), we found that Cr(VI) produced a typical DSB-associated spectrum of H2AX modifications, including its Ser139-phosphorylated (known as gamma H2AX) and mono- and diubiquitinated forms. However, whereas canonical DSB signaling relies on ATM, the formation of gamma H2AX and its ubiquitinated products by Cr(VI) was dependent on ATR kinase. Natural Product Library nmr FDA-approved Drug Library cell line Based on the established mode of ATR activation, this suggests that Cr-induced DSB are not blunt-ended and likely contain single-stranded tails. Confocal imaging with markers of active and inactive chromatin revealed a selective formation of Cr-induced DSB in euchromatin of mouse and

human cells. In contrast to DSB, Cr-DNA adducts were produced in both types of chromatin. The euchromatin targeting of Cr-induced DSB makes these lesions particularly dangerous by increasing the probability of deleting active tumor suppressors and producing oncogenic translocations. Accumulation of transcription-inhibiting

selleck chemical ubiquitinated forms of gamma H2AX in euchromatin is expected to contribute to the ability of Cr(VI) to suppress upregulation of inducible genes.”
“We investigated whether, during maximal exercise, intercostal muscle blood flow is as high as during resting hyperpnoea at the same work of breathing. We hypothesized that during exercise, intercostal muscle blood flow would be limited by competition from the locomotor muscles. Intercostal (probe over the 7th intercostal space) and vastus lateralis muscle perfusion were measured simultaneously in ten trained cyclists by near-infrared spectroscopy using indocyanine green dye. Measurements were made at several exercise intensities up to maximal (WRmax) and subsequently during resting isocapnic hyperpnoea at minute ventilation levels up to those at WRmax. During resting hyperpnoea, intercostal muscle blood flow increased linearly with the work of breathing (R-2 = 0.94) to 73.0 +/- 8.8 ml min(-1) (100 g)(-1) at the ventilation seen at WRmax (work of breathing similar to 550-600 J min(-1)), but during exercise it peaked at 80% WRmax (53.4 +/- 10.3 ml min(-1) (100 g)(-1)), significantly falling to 24.7 +/- 5.3 ml min(-1) (100 g)(-1) at WRmax. At maximal ventilation intercostal muscle vascular conductance was significantly lower during exercise (0.22 +/- 0.

The optimal prevention strategy is not currently known To assess

The optimal prevention strategy is not currently known. To assess current CMV prevention practices, a web-based survey was conducted within the North American Studies in Pediatric Liver Transplantation (SPLIT) network. Twenty-nine of the 31 centers (94%) surveyed responded. Only seven centers reported evidence-based development of protocols.

For most at-risk (donor or recipient CMV seropositive) PLT recipients, a prophylactic strategy predominates current practice. For high-risk (D+/R-), only three centers used non-prophylaxis-based protocols: one preemptive and two sequential/hybrid. Duration of prophylaxis ranged from 84 to 730 days with 14 centers using around 100 days and nine centers using around 200 days. Initial therapy with ganciclovir followed by valganciclovir was the most common strategy. For lower-risk recipients (CMV D-/R-), more centers (10/29) employed a preemptive strategy while the remainder described prophylaxis (15)

and sequential/hybrid (3) strategies. Prophylaxis predominates current CMV prevention strategies for at-risk recipients within SPLIT. The variation in duration of therapy provides the opportunity to perform comparative effectiveness studies within SPLIT.”
“A study was conducted to detect and quantify lard stearin (LS) content in canola oil (CaO) using differential scanning calorimetry GNS-1480 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor (DSC). Authentic samples of CaO were obtained from a reliable supplier and the adulterant LS were obtained through a fractional crystallization procedure as reported previously. Pure CaO samples spiked with LS in levels ranging from 5 to 15% (w/w) were analyzed using DSC to obtain their cooling and heating profiles. The results showed that samples contaminated with LS at 5% (w/w) level can be detected using characteristic contaminant peaks appearing in the higher temperature regions (0 to 70 degrees C) of the cooling and heating curves. Pearson correlation analysis of LS content against individual DSC parameters of the adulterant peak namely peak temperature, peak area, peak onset temperature indicated

that there were strong correlations between these with the LS content of the CaO admixtures. When these three parameters were engaged as variables in the execution of the stepwise regression procedure, predictive models for determination of LS content in CaO were obtained. The predictive models obtained with single DSC parameter had relatively lower coefficient of determination (R-2 value) and higher standard error than the models obtained using two DSC parameters in combination. This study concluded that the predictive models obtained with peak area and peak onset temperature of the adulteration peak would be more accurate for prediction of LS content in CaO based on the highest coefficient of determination (R-2 value) and smallest standard error.

“Vaccination is regarded as the most efficient and cost-ef

“Vaccination is regarded as the most efficient and cost-effective way to prevent infectious diseases. Vaccine design nowadays focuses on the implementation

of safer recombinant subunit vaccines. However, these recombinant subunit antigens are often poor immunogens and several strategies are currently under investigation to enhance their immunogenicity. The encapsulation of antigens in biodegradable Metabolism inhibitor microparticulate delivery systems seems a promising strategy to boost their immunogenicity. Here, we evaluate the capacity of polyelectrolyte complex microparticles (PECMs), fabricated by single step spray-drying, to deliver antigens to porcine dendritic cells and how these particles affect the functional maturation of dendritic cells (DCs). As clinically relevant model antigen F4 fimbriae, a bacterial adhesin purified from a Selleckchem PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor porcine-specific enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain was chosen. The resulting antigen-loaded PECMs are efficiently internalised by porcine monocyte-derived

DCs. F4 fimbriae-loaded PECMs (F4-PECMs) enhanced CD40 and CD25 surface expression by DCs and this phenotypical maturation correlated with an increased secretion of IL-6 and IL-1 beta. More importantly, F4-PECM5 enhance both the T cell stimulatory and antigen presentation capacity of DCs. Moreover, PECMs efficiently promoted the CD8(+) T cell stimulatory capacity of dendritic cells, indicating an enhanced ability to cross-present the encapsulated antigens. These results could accelerate the development of veterinary and human subunit vaccines based on polyelectrolyte complex microparticles to induce protective immunity against a variety of extra- and intracellular pathogens. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Joint improvisation is the creative action of two or more people without U0126 cost a script or designated leader. Examples include improvisational theater and music, and day-to-day activities such

as conversations. In joint improvisation, novel action is created, emerging from the interaction between people. Although central to creative processes and social interaction, joint improvisation remains largely unexplored due to the lack of experimental paradigms. Here we introduce a paradigm based on a theater practice called the mirror game. We measured the hand motions of two people mirroring each other at high temporal and spatial resolution. We focused on expert actors and musicians skilled in joint improvisation. We found that players can jointly create novel complex motion without a designated leader, synchronized to less than 40 ms. In contrast, we found that designating one player as leader deteriorated performance: The follower showed 2-3 Hz oscillation around the leader’s smooth trajectory, decreasing synchrony and reducing the range of velocities reached. A mathematical model suggests a mechanism for these observations based on mutual agreement on future motion in mirrored reactive-predictive controllers.