batoids) to determine the influence this website of these variables on adult tetraphyllidean tapeworm body size. Results presented herein indicate that host body size, environmental temperature and host habitat are relatively important variables in models explaining interspecific variations in tetraphyllidean
tapeworm length. In addition, a negative relationship between tetraphyllidean body size and intensity of infection was apparent. These results suggest that space constraints and ambient temperature, via their effects on metabolism and growth, determine adult tetraphyllidean cestode size. Consequently, a trade-off between size and numbers is possibly imposed by external forces influencing host size, hence limiting physical space or other resources available to the parasites.”
“It was evaluated in this study the effect of the type of the diet
on duodenal flow of long-chain fatty acids in steers. The tested diets were the following: conventional (feedlot diet composed of 60% corn silage and 40% of concentrate); winter forage silage – rye grass (Lolium multiflorum, Lam); or tropical forage silage – association of millet (Pennisetum americanum, Leeke + alexander grass, Brachiaria plantaginea). Six Charolais x Nellore crossbred steers with cannulas in duodenum were used in a 3 x 3 double Latin square. Dry material intake was similar among the groups (mean of 4,037 g/day), but the intake of total fatty acids and saturated fatty acids were higher in the group fed tropical pasture silage. On the other hand, the animals which selleck products received the conventional diet consumed higher quantity of unsaturated fatty acids. Tropical pasture silage provided higher consumption of vacenic acid (C18:1 t-11) and the winter forage silage offered higher consumption selleck chemicals of conjugated linoleic acid. The intake of omega-6 fatty acids was higher in the group fed conventional diet and for omega-3, intake was higher in the group fed tropical pasture diet. The total fatty acid flow in the duodenum was not affected by the diets,
but in all treatments it was higher than the consumed one. The animals fed diet with concentrate show the greatest changes on the profile of fatty acids during the ruminal fermentation. Conventional diets provide the highest intake of unsaturated fatty acids and the highest availability of vacenic acid in the small intestine, but they do not increase the supply of intestinal conjugated linoleic acid.”
“Shot peening is a cold-working process that is used mainly to improve the fatigue life of metallic components. Experimental investigation of the mechanisms involved in shot peening is very expensive and complicated. Therefore, the Finite Element (FE) method has been recognized as an effective mean for characterizing the shot peening process and several types of FE models have been developed to evaluate the effects of shot peening parameters. However, in most of the existing FE models, the shot peening sequence and impact location were defined a priori.