Localization algorithms in WSN can be divided into two classes:

Localization algorithms in WSN can be divided into two classes: anchor-based algorithms and anchor-free algorithms [5]. Anchor-based algorithms assume that all reference nodes are anchor nodes or nodes whose real position coordinates are known in advance. Anchor-free localization algorithms only require a few anchor nodes. The coordinates of all the reference nodes are estimated automatically. Typical anchor-free localization algorithms proceed as follows:Estimate the coordinates of the reference nodes. Several methods for this process have been proposed. Meerens and Fitzpatrick use one-hop neighbors and multilateration to construct a global coordinate system [6]. Shang and Ruml use multi-dimensional scaling (Multi-dimensional Scaling: MDS) to realize localization, which has drawn much attention recently [7].

Complete precise localization for mobile targets based on reference nodes. Oh-Heum et al. present a map stitching localization method in large scale WSN [8]. Kiran and Bhaskar put forward a sequence-based localization (Sequence-based Localization: SBL) method [9].The above algorithms have respectively achieved certain goals under ideal environments. However, in underground mines, localization will face the following challenges.Water-vapor and coal dust will potentially absorb the wireless signal in different ways and lead to large localization errors.The complex terrain and irregular network topology in underground mines make many localization algorithms do not work well.To solve the above problems, an anchor-free localization method in coal mine WSN (Coal Mine Wireless Sensor Networks: C-WSN) is proposed.

The main contributions of this paper are as follows:A coal mine wireless sensor network is constructed in underground mines based on the ZigBee technology.Non-metric AV-951 MDS algorithm is introduced into the estimation of the reference nodes�� location, which provides higher fault-tolerance ability.An improved SBL algorithm, N-best SBL, is proposed to improve the localization accuracy.The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we describe the MDS and SBL method briefly. In Section 3, our anchor-free localization method in C-WSN is studied. In Section 4, we analyze our experimental results. Finally, we conclude the paper.2.?Preliminaries2.1. Non-metric MDS algorithmsMDS algorithms are widely used in multivariate statistics.

There are two types of MDS algorithms: metric MDS and non-metric MDS. The input in the metric MDS approach is a rigid distance matrix that specifies distances between every pair of nodes, and the output is a coordinate set of all the nodes. The metric MDS approach has been introduced into WSN localization in previous work [7,11]. Compared to the metric MDS approach, non-metric MDS only requires the monotonicity of a similar relationship matrix.

Selected literatures before year 2000 are also included This pa

Selected literatures before year 2000 are also included. This paper first discusses the principles and fundamentals of accelerometry, along with different sensor placements. Various research using accelerometry-based wearable motion detectors for PA monitoring and assessment, including posture and movement classification, estimation of energy expenditure, fall detection and balance control evaluation, are then reviewed. Finally this paper reviews and compares existing commercial products to provide a comprehensive outlook of current development status and possible emerging technologies.2.?Design Fundamentals for Accelerometry-Based Wearable Motion Detectors2.1.

Accelerometry: Principles and SensorsInertial sensors are basically force sensors to sense linear acceleration along one or several directions, or angular motion about one or several axes.

The former is referred to as an accelerometer, and the later a gyroscope. The common operation principle of accelerometers is based on a mechanical sensing element which consists of a proof mass (or seismic mass) attached to a mechanical suspension system with respect to a reference frame. Inertial force due to acceleration or gravity will cause the proof mass to deflect according to Newton��s Second Law. The acceleration can be measured electrically with the physical changes in displacement of the proof mass with respect to the reference frame. Piezoresistive, piezoelectric and differential capacitive accelerometers are the most common types [12,13].

2.1.1. Piezoresistive accelerometersThe sensing element consists of a cantilever beam and its proof mass is formed by bulk-micromachining.

The motion of the proof mass due to acceleration can be detected by piezoresistors in the cantilever beam and proof mass. The piezoresistors are arranged as a Wheatstone bridge to produce a voltage proportional to the applied acceleration. Piezoresistive accelerometers are simple and low-cost. The piezoresistive accelerometers are DC-responsive that can measure constant acceleration such as gravity. The major drawbacks of piezoresistive sensing are the temperature-sensitive Entinostat drift and the lower level of the output signals.2.1.2.

Piezoelectric accelerometersIn a piezoelectric accelerometer, the sensing element bends due to applied acceleration which causes a displacement of the seismic mass, and results in an output voltage proportional to the applied acceleration. Piezoelectric GSK-3 accelerometers do not respond to the constant component of accelerations.2.1.3. Differential capacitive accelerometersThe displacement of the proof mass can be measured capacitively. In a capacitive sensing mechanism, the seismic mass is encapsulated between two electrodes.

g experi ment we decided to focus our analysis of genetic diver s

g experi ment we decided to focus our analysis of genetic diver sity on the subset of high quality SNPs that are also located in regions of good sequence neighborhood. This subset was therefore used throughout the study. Because the candidate allelic copies of each reference coding sequence are now aligned in our dataset, we use the words gene and alignment interchangeably to refer to the genomic loci represented by these sequences. Entinostat A first genome wide look at the genetic diversity of T. cruzi In the subset of high quality SNPs, we first looked at the types of changes observed at the DNA level, transitions and transversions. Theoretically, there are twice the number of possible transversions than transitions. How ever, because of the nature of the molecular mechanisms involved in the generation of these mutations transitions are found more frequently than transversions.

And T. cruzi was not exception. As observed previously for rRNA genes we observed an excess of transi tions over transversions. When analyzing the subset of high quality SNPs at the codon level, SNPs were more frequently observed at the 3rd codon position, followed by the 1st codon position and the 2nd. Functional characterization of polymorphic sites, nonsense SNPs Using the set of high quality SNPs we observed 76,452 silent SNPs, 99,552 non synonymous SNPs and 161 non sense SNPs those introducing or removing stop codons in proteins. After manual inspection of alignments containing nonsense SNPs, to filter out cases that could be explained by genome assembly problems, we ended up with 113 alignments with clear nonsense polymorphisms, many of which correspond to hypothetical proteins.

These nonsense polymorphisms were produced by changes affecting different positions of the codon. Interestingly, we also observed a bias in the codon position affected by these nonsense SNPs. Even though, theoretically, we would expect nonsense SNPs in the 1st base of a codon in 9 out of 23 nonsense SNPs, we observed a significantly higher number of nonsense SNPs arising from mutation of the 1st base of a codon or as generating a read through codon. The comparison of nonsense mutations in the available data suggest that in 3 cases the ancestral state of the codon was most prob ably a STOP that was changed into a read through codon in one strain lineage only.

In other cases the situation might be similar, although the corresponding CDS was missing from one of the strains. In contrast, in 44 cases the nonsense mutation was only observed once, and can therefore correspond to the alternative case, in which the ances tral codon was replaced by a premature stop, therefore generating a truncated protein product. Analysis of the these cases, revealed that the majority of them contained the nonsense SNP in the final 10% of the corresponding coding sequence, near the 3 end of the other allele, and therefore may not be asso ciated with large functional changes. However, in a few cases the identified nonsense SN

JSC 1, the Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 in vitro transforme

JSC 1, the Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 in vitro transformed CD4 T cell line MT 2, and the acute lymphoblastic leukemia T cell line Jurkat. LCL B cells were cultured in RPMI 1640M containing fetal calf serum, 50 uM B mercaptoethanol, 1 mM sodium pyruvate, glutamine, and penicillin streptomycin. LCL 721, LCL 3, LCL 4, and MT 2 cells were cultured in RPMI 1640M, 10% FCS, glutamine and penicillin streptomycin. B2264 19 3 B cells e pressing NGF R LMP1 were cultivated on irradiated CD40L e pressing fibroblast feeder cells in RPMI 1640M containing 10% FCS, 100 nM sodium selenite, 1% sodium pyruvate, 0. 5 mM monothioglycerol, 0. 02 uM acid and penicillin streptomycin. All other cell lines were cultured in RPMI 1640M containing 45% Pan serin 401, 10% FCS, glutamine and gentamycine.

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from buffy coats of anonymized healthy donors by Ficoll Hypaque gradient cen trifugation. Informed consent was not requested as the data were analyzed an onymously and the samples had not been collected spe cifically for this study. This procedure was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Medical Faculty of Friedrich Ale ander UniversitAt Erlangen N��rnberg. PBMC were cultured in RPMI 1640M con taining 10% FCS, glutamine, penicillin streptomycin, phytohemagglutinin and interleukin 2 for 48 h. Construction of shRNA e pression vectors For knock down of Fascin by RNA interference, the retroviral shRNA e pression vectors pSiren IRES EGFP shFascin5, and pSiren IRES EGFP shFascin4 were constructed.

Anacetrapib Oligonucleotides for shRNAs were designed with the siRNA Hairpin Oligonucleotide Sequence Designer Tool. They contained a BamHI site, the respective siRNA sequence, a loop region, the complementary siRNA sequence, an RNA polymerase III termination sequence, an MluI restriction enzyme site, and an EcoRI cloning site Oligonucleotides were annealed in 10 mM Tris and 20 mM NaCl by heating to 95 C for 2 min followed by cooling to room temperature. Double stranded oligonucleotides were thereafter inserted into the retroviral vector pSiren IRES EGFP shNonsense using T4 ligase after removal of the shNon frag ment via BamHI and EcoRI restriction sites. The resulting shRNA e pression plasmid was called pSiren IRES EGFP shFascin4. Immunoblots Protein lysates were obtained by lysis of cells in 150 mM NaCl, 10 mM Tris pH 7.

0, 10 mM EDTA, 1% Triton, 2 mM dithiothreitol and protease inhibitors. After repeated freeze and thaw cycles, equal amounts of protein were denatured for 5 min at 95 C in sodium dodecyl sulfate loading dye, 2% SDS, 0. 1% brom phenol blue, 5% B mercaptoethanol and subjected to SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by immunoblotting on Nitrocel lulose Transfer Membranes. Immunoblots were probed using the rabbit monoclonal antibody anti NF ��B2 p100 p52 and mouse monoclonal antibodies anti Fascin, anti B actin, anti Hsp90 B, anti LMP1, anti I��B and mouse antibodies to Ta , which were derived from the hybridoma cell line

Camera calibration techniques [6�C10] can be choices for calibrat

Camera calibration techniques [6�C10] can be choices for calibrating the star tracker considering that they are both optical imaging devices. However, there are problems for the star tracker to apply the calibration methods of the camera. First, most of these methods need to establish a complicated calibration model with scores of parameters. Good calibration results depend largely on the initial values and large amounts of calculation are needed for the optimization. Observability and convergence can be problematic. Second, the star tracker focuses more on the accuracy of the position of the image point, while the camera focuses more on the MTF or other image quality.

Since the noteworthy parameters of the calibration methods of the camera and the star tracker are not exactly the same, the accuracy of general camera calibration techniques is not enough for the calibration requirement of the star tracker, which is one of the highest precision attitude measurement devices on the satellite. Moreover, majority of the camera calibration techniques have not considered the inclination of the image plane.Last but not the least, the optical imaging principle and focus matters of the star tracker and the camera are not the same due to their functions. The camera uses a finite distance imaging mode, while the star tracker adopts an infinite distance imaging mode. General camera calibration methods are not suitable for the star tracker.

Taking reference [11] as an example, the cubic 3-D calibration object applies to camera calibration Entinostat as the camera can take a clear photograph of a finite distance object, but the star tracker is used to take pictures of infinite distance stars, so it cannot take a clear photograph of the 3-D calibration object. Even though there are a few reports about how to add another high accuracy lens to make this finite imaging calibration method apply to the star tracker, the accuracy and the position of the added lens, the accuracy of the 3-D cubic object all need to be discussed. These bring new troubles and are not easy to carry out.Therefore, the calibration method provided in literature [11] or other similar camera calibration methods work better on short focal length, small view field camera. Convenient calibration methods for large FOV and high accuracy star tracker are still problems needed to be figure out. The calibration method using composite mode of high accuracy autocollimator theodolite and the features of the star tracker proposed in the manuscript is a good choice for this topic.To summarize, the literature on the analysis and evaluation of the error sources of star trackers has not been adequate until now. This paper proposes a systematic method for weight analysis of the error source.

Recently, in order to resolve the conflict between bandwidth and

Recently, in order to resolve the conflict between bandwidth and sensitivity in normal ultrasonic FBG sensors, phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings (PS-FBG) were introduced by the authors and other researchers as a potential alternative to ultrasonic sensors [5,6]. The effective grating length of the PS-FBG sensor is much shorter than its grating length, leading to better responses to high-frequency ultrasonic waves. Additionally, the steep slope in the peak area of PS-FBG effectively improves the sensitivity of the sensing system, because the sensitivity of the demodulation system based on laser-source positively relates to the slope of the spectrum according to [7]. For example, the authors have successfully used PS-FBG in the acousto-ultrasonic [5] and the acoustic emission (AE) methods [8].

In these experiments, the PS-FBG sensor was glued in line to the ultrasonic source, which is a setup similar to other experiments where normal FBGs were used. However, a network with many FBG or PS-FBG sensors is necessary in both the acousto-ultrasonic and the AE method. Thus, to understand the sensitivity distribution properties of FBG or PS-FBG, it is important to optimize the sensor network for NDT and SHM. Furthermore, signal analysis to determine the damage types or identify the impact position or AE positions also demands systematic study in this field.Although, compared to a normal FBG, a PS-FBG has broader bandwidth and higher sensitivity to ultrasonic waves, the theory of ultrasonic detection for PS-FBG is identical because, under the influence of ultrasonic waves, PS-FBGs undergo the same physical changes as optical fibers.

Once we have obtained the sensitivity distribution properties of the PS-FBG, we could also deduce these results for normal fiber sensors in more common cases. The sensitivity distribution properties of an optical fiber sensor are mainly determined by the distance from and the angle to the ultrasonic source, but the distribution is also influenced by many other factors, such as effective sensing length and cladding property. Furthermore, when the fiber is attached to the surface of a material, additional factors should be considered, including coupling performance, the ultrasonic waves’ properties, and the material’s geometric structure. In common cases of NDT or SHM, the target material has a plate shape, while the propagating ultrasonic wave is a Lamb wave.

Thus, in this study, we comprehensively researched the sensitivity distribution properties of PS-FBG when the sensor was attached to the surface of an aluminum plate. The structure of this paper Dacomitinib is as follows: firstly, the experimental setup is introduced; then, theory analysis is explained; and lastly, the results are shown and discussed.2.?Experimental SetupFigure 1 is a schematic diagram of the experimental setup based on the acousto-ultrasonic method.

In addition, the solid trap/thermal desorption gas condensation m

In addition, the solid trap/thermal desorption gas condensation method has other advantages [11-13]: larger amounts of analytes can be concentrated on a solid sorbent out of a gas matrix through active or passive sampling; the sorbent packing and attendant equipment are small in size and light weight; the trap tube is in the relative front area of the gas path, which may reduce the manual disturbance; there are many choices of sorbents for different pathology marker gas, thus a good combination of different sorbents may allow for the determination of a wide range of VOCs; the humidity interference can be decreased by hydrophobic sorbents, dry gas purge, and splitting of the sample during analysis.

With the advantages mentioned, the solid trap condensation method remains one of the most widely spread techniques for VOC analysis in practice.

Despite its advantages, however, there are some bottlenecks that need to be addressed. First, variations in the split ratio affect the mass of analytics entering the detector relative AV-951 to that loaded on the sorbent material. Second, the field samples taken either in environmental matrices, or in food, flavor, and fragrances typically contain up to hundreds of VOCs. Thus, the analyst has the difficulty of having a calibration mixture that contains all of the observed analytes.Figure 1 shows the system architecture of the pre-condensation system for the e-nose.

At first, appropriate sorbents are selected for the object gas, and then the exhaled breath is transferred through the sorbents-filled trap tube. The VOCs of exhaled breath are then kept in the Carfilzomib trap tube.

The gas flow path of the trap stage is shown by the bold line in Figure 1(a). After sampling, the trap tube is heated to desorb VOCs. The object component then flows along with inert gas into the sensor chamber. We can utilize the different Site URL List 1|]# response patterns of exhaled breath to differentiate between patients and healthy people. The gas flow graph of the thermal desorption stage is shown by the bold line in Figure 1(b).Figure 1.System layout of the pre-condensation for the e-nose. (a) Adsorption stage; (b) Desorption stage.The solid trap/thermal desorption process can be treated as a dynamic quality balance process. The sample gas passes through the solid sorbents with constant speed, and the object component is trapped by the solid sorbents. The trapping process is usually composed of three stages: mass transfer, intragranular diffusion, and physical adsorption.

The potential of using thermal infrared data from space to infer

The potential of using thermal infrared data from space to infer regional and local scale ET has been extensively studied during the past 30 years and substantial progress has been made [20]. The methods vary in complexity from simplified empirical regressions to physically based surface energy balance models, the vegetation index-surface temperature triangle/trapezoid methods, and finally to data assimilation techniques, usually coupled with some numerical model that incorporates all sources of available information to simulate the flow of heat and water transfer through the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum [13].

In 1970s, when the split-window technique for surface temperature retrieval was not yet developed, ET evaluation was often accomplished by regressing thermal radiances from remote sensors and certain surface meteorological measurement variables (solar radiation, air temperature) to in-situ ET observations or by simulating a numerical model of a planetary boundary layer to continuously match the thermal radiances from satellites [1,19,21-22]. These methods and the refinements have been successfully used in mapping ET over local areas.However, satellite remote sensing cannot provide near-surface variables such as wind speed, air temperature, humidity, etc., which has to a great extent limited the applications of the energy balance equation to homogeneous areas with uniform vegetation, soil moisture and topography [23]. Moreover, when compared to each other, approaches to deriving land surface ET differ greatly in model-structure complexity, in model inputs and outputs and in their advantages and drawbacks.

Therefore, with the consideration of the characteristics of the various ET methods developed over Anacetrapib the past decades and of the significance of land surface ET to hydrologists, water resources and irrigation engineers, and climatologists,
Feature extraction is one of the main topics in Photogrammetry and Computer Vision (CV). This process consists of the extraction of features of interest from two or more images of the same object and of the matching of these features in adjacent images.In aerial and close-range photogrammetry, image features are necessary for automatic collimation procedures such as image orientation, DSM generation, 3D reconstruction, and motion tracking. In CV, features are used in various applications including: model based recognition, texture recognition, robot localization [1], 3D scene modelling [2], building panoramas [3], symmetry detection and object categorization. In the last 25 years, many photogrammetric and CV applications dealing with feature extraction have been developed.

Independent residuals are constructed for each different senso

Independent residuals are constructed for each different sensor failure. Residuals are designed so that they respond to an individual failure and not to the others. In general, residuals rk are functions of the squared difference between real (ci) and estimated (?i) sensor outputs:rk=��i=1nmi(ci?c^i)2(2)where mi are weighting coefficients that are determined for each failure based on experience and experimentation. Ideally, if no fault is present, the residual would be zero. In practice, the residual will take non-zero values due to estimation errors, sensor noise, etc. Usually, the residual for a specific sensor will be bounded, and therefore a ��threshold level�� can be defined so that the residual is always below it in absence of failures.

The system has been tested with different sensors and failure types.

The implemented sensor FDI system is able to detect many of these errors.2.2. Differ
Automation of welding processes has been a challenging field of research in robotics, sensor technology, control systems and artificial intelligence because of its severe environmental conditions such as intense heat, fumes and so on [1]. In the field of robotics, industrial robot welding is by far the most popular application worldwide, since various manufacturing industries require welding operations AV-951 in their assembly processes [2]. The most significant application of robot welding can be found in the automobile industry.

In the case of the representative Korean automobile company, Hyundai Motor Company, the most manufacturing processes, except for delicate assembly processes, are automated with automotive assembly lines, and the welding process is almost fully automated.

As a result, the productivity and quality of the products have been improved remarkably. On the contrary, the shipbuilding process is much less automated than the automobile manufacturing process due to its large-scale unstructured production environment. The welding process in shipbuilding is automated just 60%. Thus, the fact is that the study of robotic welding is still required in the field of shipbuilding, taking into consideration its complex and unstructured production environment.

Shipbuilding is achieved by welding numerous steel plates according to a ship blueprint. Since the steel plates are too big and heavy to carry as is, a lug is attached to the plates as a handle, Brefeldin_A as shown in Figure 1. In this study, for robotic welding of the lug to the steel plate, a 3D lug pose detection sensor is proposed based on a structured-light vision system. In fact, a structured-light vision system has been commonly used for robotic welding with high precision and low disturbance [3,4].

The output of neurons

The output of neurons Vorinostat MK0683 in the output layer is computed in the same manner. Following this calculation, a learning algorithm Palbociclib cell cycle is used to adjust the strengths of the connections in order to allow a network to achieve a desired overall behavior.There are many types of learning algorithms in the literature [13-15, 26]. However, it is very difficult to know which training algorithm will be more efficient for a given problem. The algorithms Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries used to train ANNs Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries in this study are Levenberg�CMarquardt Backpropagation (LM), Scaled Conjugate Gradient Backpropagation (SCG), Broyden Fletcher Goldfarb Shanno Quasi-Newton Backpropagation (BFGS), Bayesian Regularization Backpropagation (BR), and Conjugate Gradient Backpropagation with Polak-Ribi��re updates (CGP).

The LM algorithm is an iterative technique Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries locating a lo
It is estimated that some Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries 9% of Earth’s population live within 100 km of historically active volcanoes [Small and Naumann, 2001]; these pose considerable hazards both locally and globally, resulting in the loss of some 100,000 lives during the last century alone [Witham, 2005]. The last two hundred years have witnessed a number of spectacular eruptions, foremost among which was Tambora in Indonesia during 1815, which ejected 50 cubic kilometres of magma, resulting in over 71,000 fatalities in the immediately Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries impacted region as a consequence of the blast itself, and the subsequent ash fall, which smothered and contaminated crops and water supplies, leading to starvation and disease [Oppenheimer, 2003].

The most lethal eruption of the 20th century was Mt.

Pel��e in Martinique, when, during 1902, the lava dome collapsed, precipitating Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries a deadly pyroclastic flow of hot rocks, ash and gas down the flanks of the volcano into the principal town, St. Pierre, thereby killing all but two of the ��28,000 inhabitants. In antiquity, the AD 79 eruption of Vesuvius destroyed Pompeii and Herculaneum, and the 17th century BC Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries eruption of Santorini (Greece) precipitated enormous tsunamis, which may have contributed to the demise of the Cretan Minoan civilisation.There is, therefore, considerable interest in the development and implementation of novel technologies for better monitoring volcanic activity, with a view to improving the accuracy of hazard assessments and eruption forewarnings.

Of particular interest are sensors for measuring the chemical composition and Dacomitinib emission http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Y-27632.html rates of gases (species include H2O, CO2, SO2, HCl, HF, H2, S2, H2S, CO and SiF4) released by volcanoes, from magma to the atmosphere, both prior to and during eruptions; data Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries which provide valuable information concerning the masses and Brefeldin_A motions of underground magmas. For instance, increases in the plume Bioactive compound CO2/SO2 ratio have been observed prior to recent eruptions of Mt. Etna [Aiuppa et al.