To complete this, we isolated and sequenced all Class I alleles from both folks and assigned them to genes. We amplified exon two from the Class I genes from genomic DNA utilizing protocols developed by Siddle and colleagues with modifications in the reverse primer sequence. Two independent PCRs had been carried out for every indi vidual. The PCR amplicons had been gel purified and cloned in the pGEM T Straightforward Vector JM109 Substantial Effi ciency Competent Cells cloning method. 32 posi tive clones had been picked for each individual and plasmids were extracted making use of QIAGEN DirectPrep 96 MiniPrep Kit on a QIAvac Multiwell vacuum manifold. Plasmids have been sequenced with T7 primer on the Australian Genome Exploration Facility, Sydney, Australia. Sequences have been excellent checked using Sequencher 4. 1.
four and aligned with past recognized selleck devil Class I alleles in BioEdit 7. 0. 9. To minimize mistakes yielded all through PCR, cloning and sequencing, new sequence variants had been established to be genuine alleles only if they had been located in over a single PCR amplification. Alleles had been assigned to genomic loci based on nucleotide sequence similarity. Evolutionary relationships of devil Class I sequences were analysed by constructing a Neigh bour Joining phylogenetic tree with MEGA5. PCR primer style Two pairs of new PCR primers have been created using pro gram Oligo six. seven. 1 pair amplified par tial exon two to exon 3 of the Class I gene Saha United kingdom from devil cDNA. Another pair was created to detect a dele tion in Class I gene Saha UA, together with the forward primer binding on the end of intron five.
In about 5% of samples, this set of primers was uncovered to operate much less efficiently, which could be on account of nucleotide variations in inhibitor NSC 74859 primer binding sites. PCR circumstances for each primer sets were the identical as the 1 presented over. PCR items had been sequenced to verify proper amplification websites. Background Microbiologists have extended sought to define the physiolo gical characteristics of marine bacteria. These studies have largely focused on seawater inhabiting Gram nega tive bacteria. None the much less, Gram optimistic bacteria are persistently reported from marine samples. Among these, representatives of the phylum Actinobacteria are especially effectively represented. To date, the genetic basis for marine adaptation inside the Actinobacteria stays uncharacterized. Early attempts to define marine bacteria centered around the observation that some marine derived strains failed to expand when seawater was replaced with deionized water in the growth medium. Subsequently, this physiological response was linked to a specific sodium ion requirement, which led on the realization that sea water was not simply just demanded for osmotic stability. Based mostly on this, marine bacteria had been more defined by a demonstrable necessity of sodium for growth.
The 4 principal classes of genes incorporated these connected to I ER translocation and protein folding, II intracellular vesicle trafficking, III protein glycosylation and IV lipid metabolic process. These four most important cat egories are even more described in the following area. While in the HacACA strain we found enriched GO terms linked to ER processes, this kind of as those relevant to entry during the ER signal particle recognition, cleavage of signal sequence, and translocation. Furthermore to your processes that mediate the recognition, targeting and coming into of proteins into the ER, enriched GO terms also included a considerable number of genes concerned inside the subsequent events of protein fold ing and good quality management. The genes associated to protein folding integrated the recognized HacA targets this kind of as bipA, pdiA, tigA and prpA.
After remaining synthesized and folded effectively while in the ER, proteins are packed in vesicles and transported to the Golgi and from there on, more selleck chemicals transported to achieve their ultimate intra or added cellular destination. Our evaluation identified several genes that encode proteins that consider aspect in the vesicletrafficking machinery such as individuals concerned in ER to Golgi, Golgi to ER and Golgi to endosome transport. On top of that, genes involved in exocytosis had been also induced. GO terms connected to processes involving protein glycosylation, were up regulated from the HacACA strain. The processes include genes concerned in sugar nucleotide synthesis, oligosac charyl synthesis and transfer on the preassembled oligosaccharide to particular asparagine residues. Additionally, genes relevant towards the addition of O glycans were up regulated.
Ultimately, many genes related for the synthesis and transfer of glycosylphosphatidylinosi tol anchors to proteins have been uncovered to become up regulated. Added file twelve lists the differentially expressed genes using a proposed perform in relation to protein parthenolide glycosylation or GPI anchor attachment. Furthermore, the constitutive activation of HacA includes a pro nounced result around the transcription of genes involved in phospholipid metabolism and involves proteins which are homologous to proteins concerned in ergosterol biosyn thesis too as proteins concerned from the metabolic process of fatty acids and inositol. Classes containing fewer GO terms included terms connected to intracellular pH regulation and terms relevant to glutathi a single catabolic processes.
Regarding the biological processes more than represented within the down regulated set of genes we observed one particular main class linked to your central metabolic pathways. This category incorporates genes inside glycolysisgluconeogenesis. alcohol catabolic metabolic method. carboxylic acid cycle and carbon metaboliccatabolic metabolism. Categories containing fewer GO terms integrated terms associated to transporters and response to oxidative anxiety.
Microarray analysis from two independent experiments deter mined that 629 genes were regulated by TNF signalling in both sets of experiments by at least 1. 45 fold, the majority of which were increased in response to TNF. Of these genes, alterations of 138 were attenuated with U0126. Furthermore, of the remaining genes that were not regulated by TNF, 62 genes were regulated by U0126 alone, indicating that basal MEKERK activity may also play a role in chondrocyte gene regulation. Complete microarray data have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus public repository. Selective extracellular matrix and proteinase genes are regulated by TNF induced MEKERK signalling We further analysed the lists of genes that were induced by TNF using specific gene ontologies.
Analysis of the list of TNF induced, MEKERK dependent and MEKERK inde pendent probe sets indicated that there was significant repre sentation of genes whose protein products localize to the extracellular space within both lists. kinase inhibitor Further analysis of the list of TNF regulated, MEKERK dependent geneswhose products are found in the extracellular spaceindicated that some of these genes were significantly cate gorized by the molecular function of their protein products into categories that included hyaluronic acid binding activity and proteinase activity. Analysis of the TNF regulated, MEK ERK independent list of genes whose protein products were localized to the extracellular space determined that many of the protein products of these genes were involved in a variety of activities, including chemokinecytokine activityincluding macrophage Csf 1and various protease activities.
The inflammatory genes, however, appeared to be primarily U0126 insensitive. To validate the changes in gene expression supplier EMD 121974 in response to TNF induced MEKERK signalling determined by the micro array analysis, we identified the relative changes in transcript levels of the extracellular matrix components Agc1, Hapln1, and Col2a1, proteases Mmp 9 and Mmp 12, as well as the inflammatory cytokine macrophage Csf 1. TNF decreased Agc1 and Hapln1 and increased Mmp 9 and Mmp 12 in a MEKERK dependent manner. In addition, Col2a1a gene not identified as MEK ERK sensitive by microarray analysiswas also determined to be MEKERK sensitive.
Pretreatment with U0126, however, only partially attenuated the TNF induced reduc tions in Agc1, Hapln1 and Col2a1 transcript levelsto a level only moderately, but not significantly, lower than control treated cultures, suggesting the possible involvement of other pathways. Conversely, TNF induced increases in macrophage Csf 1 were independent of MEK ERK signalling. As anticipated, the inactive U0126 analogue U0124 had no effect in any of the assays tested. Taken together, these results suggest that U0126 may atten uate the changes in chondrocyte gene expression towards a catabolic phenotype while allowing for inflammatory proc esses to be undisturbed.
Nonetheless, the partnership in between the efficacy of MTX as well as the expression of SLC19A1 in arthritic animals and RA patients is simply not fully understood. Glucose six phosphate isomerase induced arthri tis is widely studied, not simply for the understanding in the pathogenesis of RA, but also to the development of new therapeutics, for the reason that its pathological characteristics are much like those of RA with pannus formation, auto tilage or bone erosions, and angiogenesis inside the syno vium. Furthermore, it’s been reported that cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen four immunoglobulin fusion protein and antibodies to tumor necrosis aspect a and IL 6, which are pretty successful from the treatment of RA patients, also demonstrate therapeutic effects in GPI induced arthritis. However, the efficacy of MTX has not nevertheless been evalu ated within this model.
Within the present examine we examined the connection concerning the efficacy of MTX as well as the expression of SLC19A1 in GPI induced arthritis. We uncovered that IL six regulated the expression of SLC19A1, so we also studied the result of concomitant use of MTX and anti IL 6 receptor antibody within this arthritis model. Products and tactics Animals selelck kinase inhibitor Male DBA1J mice were purchased from Charles River Japan. The mice were unique patho gen free and had been stored in cages in a room maintained at twenty to 26 C at a relative humidity of 35 to 75%. The experimental protocol was authorized from the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Chugai Pharmaceu tical Co. Ltd. Induction of glucose six phosphate isomerase induced arthritis GPI induced arthritis was induced as previously described, with modifications.
In short, male DBA 1J mice have been immunized intradermally in the base from the tail with 300 ug of recombinant GPI glu tathione S transferase fusion protein emulsi fied with an equal volume of full adjuvant H37Ra. Pertussis toxin was injected for the day of immunization and 2 days following immunization. Clinical signs and symptoms of arthritis additional reading had been evaluated visually and assigned a scale of 0 to three for each limb. Treatment method regimen MTX dissolved in 7% sodium bicarbonate solution was provided orally 3 occasions every week in the 1st day of immunization. 10 days after immunization, mice had been intraperitoneally injected after with 4 mg of rat anti mouse IL 6R monoclonal antibody, MR16 1. The automobile group mice were administered 7% sodium bicarbonate solution orally, and had been intraperi toneally injected with phosphate buffer saline. The MTX group mice were administered MTX orally, and had been intraperitoneally injected with PBS. The MR16 1 group mice had been administered 7% sodium bicarbonate choice orally and had been intraperitoneally injected with MR16 one. The MTX plus MR16 one group mice have been admi nistered MTX orally and have been intraperitoneally injected with MR16 1.
On top of that, expanded, redifferentiated costal chondrocytes reply to exogenous stimuli similarly to articular chondrocytes. Most notably, costal chondrocytes show a valuable re sponse to TGF B1, C ABC, and HP individual solutions, and a synergistic improve in tensile strength and collagen material in dual C ABCTGF B1 remedy. The presence of SZP in engineered neocartilage even further suggests that nonarticular costochondral cells may be induced to act in a manner reminiscent of articular chondrocytes. Ex panded, redifferentiated costochondral cells reply bene ficially to exogenous stimuli to create robust articular cartilage, indicating the possible of this cell source in en gineering load bearing joint structures.
Conclusions This review presents the first systematic evaluation on the in dependent and combinatorial rewards of salient biochem ical, biomechanical, and biophysical stimuli in engineering inhibitor MK-0457 costochondral cell neocartilage tissue replacements. Even more in excess of, this examination was carried out utilizing a clinically pertinent cell population, costochondral cells, that are unaffected by pathologies of articulating joints. HP, TGF B1, and C ABC just about every enhanced functional properties of engineered tissues, and dual therapies even more enhanced the collagen content, and tensile and compressive properties. Total, total HPC ABCTGF B1 treatment method achieved a tensile modulus of two MPa, an instantaneous compressive modu lus of 650 kPa, as well as a relaxed modulus of 40 kPa which has a matrix composition most just like native articular cartilage.
Ataluren Introduction Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune sickness characterized by defective phagocytosis of apop totic cells. Accumulation and presentation of AC derived nuclear and membrane autoantigens in lymphoid organs are believed to drive the activation of autoreactive B and T cells, resulting in production of anti nuclear and antiphospholipoprotein autoantibodies. Immune complexes containing nuclear antigens and antibody opsonized ACs bind to Toll like receptors and immunoglobulin G Fc receptors on innate immune cells, provoking aberrant production of style I interferons and B and proinflammatory cytokines. On top of that, noningested ACs undergo secondary necrosis, which fuels ongoing innate inflamma tion by amplifying TLR activation and oxidative burst. Clearance of ACs is critical for resolution of inflamma tion and servicing of immune tolerance.
In wholesome people, discrete populations of phagocytes, named M2c macrophages, are designated to promptly remove ACs, like activated immune cells undergoing apoptosis. Moreover, the physiologic engulfment of ACs is connected with macrophage release of anti inflammatory cytokines. The Mer receptor tyrosine kinase, which belongs to your family of Tyro3, Axl and MerTK receptors, is needed for that productive clear ance of ACs exerted by M2c monocytesmacrophages, participates in immune regulation by stimulating interleukin 10 secretion and is concerned in restoration of tissue homeostasis following inflammatory processes too as while in the upkeep of central and peripheral tolerance.
Other distinctions between findings could possibly stem from results assessed at diverse time points. The length of time in between estrogen or antiestrogen administration and kinase assessment can obviously influence outcomes, as evi denced by our time and compound sequencing depend ent alterations in ERK activation. It’s also acknowledged that lengthy exposures to ICI182,780 can considerably lower ER protein amounts, which could explain the decreased ERK activation observed in some studies. Long lasting estro gen deprived MCF seven cells express increased levels of ER than do wild type MCF seven cells and therefore are hypersensitive to E2. ICI182,780 did not alter the pattern of response to E2 stim ulated development in these cells.
To reconcile this observation together with the anticipated inhibitory result of ICI182,780, the authors suggested that ICI182,780 blocked only the impact on the residual E2 coming from plas tic tissue culture flasks, with no affecting the additional E2. We can speculate that the observed effect of ICI182,780 was real and resulted from potentially increased from this source ranges of mER in long-term estrogen deprived MCF seven cells, since our past studies advised that serum deprivation ele vates mER amounts. In other cell kinds ICI182,780 behaved as being a potent agonist of ERK12 activation, or being a partial ER agonist. It really is probably that subtle variations during the shape of estro gen and antiestrogen liganded ERs, no matter whether nuclear or membrane, present different interaction platforms to get a vari ety of co modulators, and that every signaling pathway will have to be regarded in the context of a specific cell kinds rep ertoire of partnering proteins.
Also to getting optimistic effects by itself, ICI182,780 was capable to alter the E2 response in a different way, dependent on the timing of its administration. In case the cells were pretreated for only thirty min, then the original E2 activa tion and the late re activation at 60 min were preserved, whereas the soon after peak deactivation was enhanced. If ICI182,780 and E2 were extra concurrently, then nvp-auy922 747412-49-3 the activation was delayed to 20 min, but weakly persisted up to one hour. Very similar observations that ICI182,780 can modify the time of ERK activation have been reported in the case of the human thyroid carcinoma cell line, during which it diminished the thirty min to one hour activation, but enhanced later on sustained activation at 6 hours.
The identical authors showed that, in differentiated thyroid gland carcinoma cells, addition of ICI182,780 induces a little reduce inside the sustained ERK phosphorylation. Consequently, also to dem onstrating that ICI182,780 is not only an antagonist for this response, these research and ours may stage to cell certain distinctions in ERK regulation. Phosphorylations resulting in activation and subsequent inactivation of proteins are significant regulatory mecha nisms for control of cell development and differentiation.
To demonstrate whether or not the effects of derlin 1 on cell survival are particular to ER pressure or had been a common mechanism of pressure resistance, precisely the same cells have been treated with 1M stau rosporine for 24 hours. Downregulation of derlin 1 did not result in improved sensitivity to staurosporine. Therapy of cells with this drug didn’t result in the induction of ER strain marker GRP78. Therefore, derlin 1 expression may well pro tect breast cancer cells against ER tension induced apoptosis. These information recommend that derlin 1 represents a prosurvival arm of the UPR. Discussion The rising significance of adaptation to tumor microenvi ronment in cancer progression has led towards the development of novel biomarkers and molecular targets for cancer therapy.
It has been nicely documented that cytotoxic insults are present in several cancer cells and the cellular response to resist the per sistent pop over here stress is often enhanced. Because the tumor grows, it experiences increasing nutrient starvation. Cells respond by making proangiogenic elements to initiate tumor angiogen esis. Even though tumors secrete angiogenic aspects to promote vasculature development, this frequently will not be adequate to pro vide optimal oxygen and nutrients towards the tumor. To much better cope with all the stressful microenvironment, cells may well evoke other cytoprotective responses to make them adapt towards the unfavora ble situations, including ER overload response or UPR. The UPR is actually a tightly coordinated cellular program characteris tic of a rise within the expression of molecular chaperones, protein folding, plus the degradation of terminally misfolded proteins.
So far, it is nonetheless unclear how tumor cells adapt to long term ER tension in vivo. Eukaryotic cells express a family of highly conserved proteins that evoke protective mechanisms against physiological stresses within the intra and additional cellular microenvironments. This family members selleck OAC1 of tension proteins involves the heat shock proteins and glucose regulated proteins. Each HSPs and GRPs are inducible by ER strain aspects. Pre vious research from human tumors have demonstrated the acti vation of various branches of your UPR in cancer. HSPs and GRPs are frequently overexpressed in a assortment of tumors, in particular inside the late stage of disease. The very best characterized from the GRPs is often a 78 kDa protein known as GRP78, that is identical to BiP, the immunoglobulin heavy chain binding pro tein. GRP78 shares related function and 60% amino acid homology with HSP70. Distinct from the HSPs, GRPs are generally non inducible or only weakly inducible by heat. GRP78 functions as an ER resident molecular chaper one particular, which has been reported to be overexpressed additional regularly within the larger grade breast tumors than in reduce grade tumors.
In addition, STAT1 and STAT3 kind heterodimers, whose function has not been elucidated to date. Within this respect, quantification in the relative amounts of STAT1 and STAT3 bound towards the hpdODNs A and B may help recognize the complicated interaction of these TFs. Preliminary experiments which can be underway recommend a distinction in heterodimer con tent. Therefore, it really is probable that hpdODN B functions in cells by tilting the active STAT1 active STAT3 bal ance toward STAT1, thereby inducing cell death. Conclusions By combining 3D molecular interaction analysis and direct screening in cells, this perform allowed the design and style of an hpdODN that could selectively inhibit STAT3 but not STAT1. The efficacy and prospective of this method resides inside the direct testing of modified hpdODNs in cells, analyzing processes that rely on STAT3 or STAT1.
These hpdODNs represent a basis for elaborating STAT3 DBD precise low molecular weight compounds with anti cancer properties. Material and methods Personal computer evaluation of STAT3 and STAT1 The PDB files for STAT1 and STAT3 have been downloaded and ana lyzed applying Chimera. The STAT1 and STAT3 crys tals used within the X ray diffraction selelck kinase inhibitor studies have been proteins complexed with oligonucleotide duplexes featuring a consensus DNA sequence. To compare the STAT1 and STAT3 DBDs inside a complicated with their DNA consensus sequences, the missing com plementary strand of the STAT3 bound oligonucleotide was reconstructed via crystal symmetry operations. Decoy oligonucleotides The STAT3 decoy ODNs used have been hpdODN derived in the serum inducible element on the human c fos promoter and pre viously utilised inside the lab.
as well as the following mutated hpdODN as a damaging handle, NSC 74859 structure The addition of fluorescein or biotin, followed by higher efficiency liquid chromatography, had been carried out by the manu facturer working with in residence protocols. The hairpin sequence GAA, previously shown to confer stability and nuclease resistance, was integrated within the dODNs. Inside the hpdODNs, the hairpin motif was constructed and incorporated in the X ray structure using the BCE strategy, this showed that the hairpin didn’t interfere together with the DBD DNA interaction. Cell culture and reagents SW480 cells have been grown in DMEM, supplemented with 10% FCS, one hundred U ml penicillin, ten ug ml strepto mycin, 1 mM sodium pyruvate, MEM vitamins and 5 ug ml plasmo cin. Sodium ortho vanadate was from Fischer.
Interferon g was from Promocell or Sigma Aldrich. Transfections Cells have been grown in four nicely plates to a density of 0. 25 ? 106 cells ml. When the cells reached 50 60% confluence, they had been transfected together with the different STAT3 hpdODNs or the manage hpdODN into 150 uL of DMEM medium combined with polyethyleneimine, with an hpdODN PEI ratio of 1,1. For immunocyto chemistry, liposomes ready as previously described were made use of.
In contrast, there was no statistical survival distinction for GBM individuals with either potassium or calcium channel mutations. We extended these findings using a preliminary in vitro laboratory investigation to identify if known sodium channel inhibitors had an impact on GBM cells relative to cells having a typical genome. Sufferers and Procedures Patient Qualities The twenty 1 individuals integrated in this study had been those analyzed for mutations in 20,661 genes inside a pre vious study. There have been eight females and 13 males. Median age of GBM sufferers was 45 years. None on the GBM patients had received a prior chemo or perhaps a radiation therapy. Among the 21 sufferers was diagnosed as a ganglioglioma patient but was connected having a later recurrence of GBM. Median survival of the individuals was 54. 9 weeks.
The qualities of patient cohort are summarized in Table 1. GBM Patient Samples and Genome Sequencing The GBM sequencing benefits have already been previously pub lished by Parsons et al. GBM patient tumor samples had been obtained working with an IRB approved protocols. Twenty 1 GBM samples consisting of six surgically resected patient tumors and 15 samples have been passaged in nude mice selleck chemical as xenografts. These 21 samples have been amplified by PCR for sequence analysis. Primer pairs have been used to amplify and sequence 175,471 coding exons and adjacent intronic splice donor and acceptor sequences in 21 GBM samples and a single matched normal sample as described previously. Gene Choice All the mutated genes had been classified in line with gene ontology into diverse gene sets.
Ion channel classi fication used within this study included voltage gated ion channels and ion co transporters and are known as channels for sake of simplicity. All the genes involved in ion transport including, sodium channels, potassium channels, calcium channels were description selected and genes spe cifically connected with sodium channels, potassium channels and calcium channels have been selected individu ally from these sets. Cell Culture U 87 GBM cells were obtained from ATCC and D54 GBM cells were obtained from Duke University Health-related Center. Each U87 and D54 cells were maintained in DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS and penicillin streptomycin. Non tumor astrocytes consisted of brain cortex tissue surgically resected from epilepsy patients working with an IRB authorized protocol. The cortex was cut into fine pieces making use of a scalpel and was cultured for less than eight passages in DMEM F12 cell culture med ium supplemented with 10% FBS and penicillin streptomycin. Cell Proliferation and Drug Sensitivity Assay The cardiac glycosides digoxin and ouabain have been dissolved in methanol and phosphate buf fered saline, respectively, to produce a stock resolution of 25 mM. Subsequent dilutions have been produced from this stock resolution.
To a final 200 ul volume of pre warmed RPMI 1640 medium containing either NADPH or lucigenin, 5 ul of cell suspension was added to initiate the reaction followed by immediate measure ment of chemiluminescence in an Appliskan luminometer in an out of coincidence mode. Acceptable blanks and controls were established, and chemilumines cence was recorded. Neither NADPH nor NADH enhanced the background chemiluminescence of lucigenin alone. Chemiluminescence was continuously measured for 12 min, and also the activity of NADPH oxidase was expressed as counts per million cells. Western blot analysis Growth arrested cells were incubated with LPS at 37 C for the indicated time intervals. The cells have been washed, scraped, collected, and centrifuged at 45000 ? g at 4 C for 1 h to yield the entire cell extract, as previously described.
Samples had been denatured, subjected to SDS Web page utilizing a 12% operating gel, and transferred to nitrocellulose membrane. Membranes had been incubated selleck chemicals with an anti VCAM 1 antibody for 24 h, and after that incubated with an anti mouse horseradish peroxidase antibody for 1 h. The immunoreactive bands had been detected by ECL reagents. RT PCR evaluation Total RNA was isolated with Trizol in accordance with the protocol in the manufacturer. The cDNA obtained from 0. 5 ug total RNA was made use of as a template for PCR amplification as previously described. The primers employed have been as follows, for TLR4. Real time RT PCR analysis Total RNA was extracted using TRIzol reagent. mRNA was reverse transcribed into cDNA and analyzed by genuine time RT PCR. Real time PCR was performed utilizing SYBR Green PCR reagents and primers distinct for VCAM 1 and GAPDH mRNAs.
The levels of VCAM 1 expression had been deter mined by normalizing to GAPDH expression. Transient transfection with siRNAs The tiny interfering RNA duplexes correspond ing to human Nox2, Nox4, TLR2, TLR4, MyD88, p47phox, c Src, p38 MAPK, supplier NPS-2143 ATF2, and p300 and scrambled siRNA were from Invitrogen. Transient transfec tion of siRNAs was carried out working with Metafectene trans fection reagent from Biontex Lab. siRNA was formulated with Metafectene transfection reagent in line with the manufacturers instruction. Isolation of cell fractions Cells had been harvested, sonicated for five s at output 1. 5 using a sonicator, and centri fuged at 8000 rpm for 15 min at 4 C. The pellet was col lected as the nuclear fraction. The supernatant was centrifuged at 14000 rpm at four C for 60 min to yield the pellet plus the supernatant. Measurement of VCAM 1 luciferase activity For construction from the VCAM 1 luc plasmid, human VCAM 1 promoter, a region spanning ?1716 to ?119 bp was cloned into pGL3 fundamental vector. VCAM 1 luc activity was determined applying a luciferase assay system, as previously described.