In other words, a possible way to suppress the fibril formation of α-syn may be to change Tyr136 to other nonaromatic amino acid residues. Because the two factors that we focused upon in this study were located in the same C-terminal region of the α-syn polypeptide, we combined these two mutants to probe for any synergistic
effects on fibril formation. Our results surprisingly pointed toward a very complex nucleation Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical mechanism that dictated synuclein fibrillation. First of all, the relative importance of the tyrosine residue at position 136 was highlighted in our experiments. The results seen with the Syn119-140CF/Y136A mutant was a good example of the dominance of the tyrosine residue in dictating the formation of fibers (Fig. 6). However, if we refrained from neutralizing all of the negative charges in the C-terminal region, removing only the charges between residues 130 and 140, we observe that the absence of Tyr136 may be overcome, leading to fibrillation. This result is in apparent conflict with the dominant effects of tyrosine substitution seen in the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical other mutants probed in this study. When we observed the shapes of the fibrils formed in Figure 6, we found that fibrils formed by Syn130-140CF/Y136A were slightly selleck chemicals llc different from the
other samples (Fig. 7). Perhaps another, alternate pathway of fibril formation that is accessible only to this mutant exists. This may be because retaining the negative charges between residues 119 and 129 allows access to a new site that promotes nucleation, perhaps due to differences in the overall secondary structure. In Syn119-140CF/Y136A, removal of all of the negative charges in this region may cause the alternate Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical site to be occluded once more, resulting in the complete suppression of fibril formation brought about by the absence of Tyr 136. Our results have revealed that there may Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical be many pathways involving multiple factors in the C-terminal
region that initiate the formation of α-syn fibrils, and further careful analysis is necessary to completely understand the process of fibril nucleation and extension. In this context, we feel it worthwhile to emphasize another experimental result that was not reported by others and confirmed by us; that α-syn also shows an increased tendency to form fibrils when the C-terminal region of interest is completely removed (Fig. 2). A complete understanding of the process of α-syn fibril formation must therefore provide an understanding of all of these diverse facets of the initial steps of fibril formation. We have attempted to figure out a possible mechanism of α-syn amyloid fibril formation that explains our findings. The schematic model is shown in Figure 8. α-Syn is intrinsically disordered and the polypeptide may assume an expanded conformation due to the repulsion of negative charges located in the C-terminal region, including other ensemble conformations (Heise et al. 2005).