The purpose of is to minimize the domination number of while tries to maximize it. If both and play according to their optimal strategies, is well defined. We call this
number the game domination subdivision number of and denote it by . In this paper we initiate the study of the game domination subdivision number of a graph and present sharp bounds on the game domination subdivision number of a tree.”
“Background: BAY 73-4506 inhibitor The interactions between metastatic breast cancer cells and host cells of osteoclastic lineage in bone microenvironment are essential for osteolysis. In vitro studies to evaluate pharmacological agents are mainly limited to their direct effects on cell lines. To mimic the communication between breast cancer cells
and human osteoclasts, a simple and reproducible cellular model was established to evaluate the effects of zoledronate (zoledronic acid, ZOL), a bisphosphonate which exerts antiresorptive properties.\n\nMethods: Human precursor osteoclasts were cultured on bone-like surfaces in the presence of stimuli (sRANKL, M-CSF) to ensure their activation. Furthermore, immature as well as activated osteoclasts were co-cultured with MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. TRAP5b and type I collagen N-terminal telopeptide (NTx) were used as markers. Osteoclasts’ adhesion to bone surface AG-120 in vitro and subsequent bone breakdown were evaluated by studying the expression of cell surface receptors and certain functional matrix macromolecules in the presence of ZOL\n\nResults: ZOL significantly suppresses the precursor osteoclast maturation, even when the activation stimuli (sRANKL
and M-SCF) are present. Moreover, it significantly decreases bone osteolysis and activity of MMPs as well as precursor osteoclast maturation by breast cancer cells. Additionally, ZOL inhibits the osteolytic activity of mature osteoclasts and the expression of integrin beta 3, matrix metalloproteinases and cathepsin K, all implicated in adhesion and bone resorption.\n\nConclusions: ZOL exhibits a beneficial inhibitory effect by restricting activation of osteoclasts, bone particle decomposition and the MMP-related breast cancer osteolysis.\n\nGeneral significance: The proposed cellular model can be reliably used for enhancing preclinical CDK inhibitor drugs evaluation of pharmacological agents in metastatic bone disease. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background and Aims:\n\nHepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) has been established as a predictor for the development of varices, clinical decompensation and death. In the present study, the primary objectives were to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the model developed by using readily-available data in predicting the presence of significant portal hypertension and esophageal varices.\n\nMethods:\n\nThis study included a total of 61 consecutive treatment-naive patients with advanced fibrosis (METAVIR F3, F4), established by liver biopsy.
We evaluated the association between socioeconomic status and the incidence of sudden cardiac arrest, a condition that accounts for a substantial proportion of cardiovascular-related deaths, in seven large North American urban populations.\n\nMethods: Using a population-based registry, we collected data on out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrests occurring at home or at a residential institution from Apr. 1, 2006, to Mar. 31, 2007. We limited the analysis to cardiac arrests in seven metropolitan areas in the United States (Dallas, Texas; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania;
Portland, Oregon; and Seattle-King County, Washington) and Canada (Ottawa and Toronto, Ontario; and Vancouver, British Columbia). Each incident was linked to a census tract; tracts were classified into quartiles of median household income.\n\nResults: A total of 9235 sudden cardiac arrests were included in the analysis. For all MRT67307 sites combined, the incidence of sudden cardiac arrest in the lowest socioeconomic quartile was nearly double that in the highest quartile (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8-2.0). This disparity was greater among people less than 65 years old (IRR 2.7, 95% CI 2.5-3.0) than among those 65 or older (IRR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.4). After adjustment for study site and for population age structure of each census
tract, the disparity across socio economic quartiles for all ages combined was greater in the United States (IRR 2.0, 95% CI 1.9-2.2)
than in Canada (IRR P505-15 datasheet 1.8, 95% CI 1.6-2.0) (p < 0.001 for interaction).\n\nInterpretation: The incidence of sudden cardiac arrest at home or at a residential institution was higher in poorer neighbourhoods of the US and Canadian sites studied, selleck kinase inhibitor although the association was attenuated in Canada. The disparity across socioeconomic quartiles was greatest among people younger than 65. The association be tween socio economic status and incidence of sudden cardiac arrest merits consideration in the development of strategies to improve survival from sudden cardiac arrest, and possibly to identify opportunities for prevention.”
“Background: Therapeutic hypothermia (TH, 30 degrees C) protects the brain from hypoxic injury. However, TH may potentiate the occurrence of lethal ventricular fibrillation (VF), although the mechanism remains unclear. The present study explored the hypothesis that TH enhances wavebreaks during VF and Si pacing, facilitates pacing-induced spatially discordant alternans (SDA), and increases the vulnerability of pacing-induced VF\n\nMethods and Results: Using an optical mapping system, epicardial activations of VF were studied in 7 Langendorff-perfused isolated rabbit hearts at baseline (37 degrees C), TH (30 degrees C), and rewarming (37 degrees C). Action potential duration (APD)/conduction velocity (CV) restitution and APD alternans (n=6 hearts) were determined by S1 pacing at these 3 stages.
The GFEM solution of a functionally graded thin rotating annular disk has been compared with the published literature and it shows good agreement.”
“A selective kanamycin-binding single-strand DNA (ssDNA) aptamer (TGGGGGTTGAGGCTAAGCCGA) was discovered through in vitro selection using affinity chromatography with kanamycin-immobilized sepharose beads. The selected BMN 673 research buy aptamer has a high affinity for kanamycin and also for kanamycin derivatives such as kanamycin B and tobramycin. The dissociation constants (K(d) [kanamycin] = 78.8 nM, K(d) [kanamycin B] = 84.5 nM, and K(d) [tobramycin] = 103 nM) of the new aptamer were determined
by fluorescence intensity analysis using 5′-fluorescein amidite (FAM) modification. Using this aptamer, kanamycin was detected
down to 25 nM by the gold nanoparticle-based colorimetric method. Because the designed colorimetric method is simple, easy, and visible to the naked eye, it has advantages that Navitoclax make it useful for the detection of kanamycin. Furthermore, the selected new aptamer has many potential applications as a bioprobe for the detection of kanamycin, kanamycin B, and tobramycin in pharmaceutical preparations and food products. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background: The inability to store fearful memories into their original encoding context is considered to be an important vulnerability factor for the development of anxiety disorders like posttraumatic stress disorder. Altered memory contextualization most likely involves effects of the stress hormone cortisol, acting via receptors located in the memory neurocircuitry. Cortisol via these receptors
induces rapid nongenomic effects followed by slower genomic effects, which are thought to modulate cognitive function in opposite, complementary ways. Here, we targeted these time-dependent effects of cortisol during memory encoding and tested subsequent HM781-36B contextualization of emotional and neutral memories.\n\nMethods: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 64 men were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1) received 10 mg hydrocortisone 30 minutes (rapid cortisol effects) before a memory encoding task; 2) received 10 mg hydrocortisone 210 minutes (slow cortisol) before a memory encoding task; or 3) received placebo at both times. During encoding, participants were presented with neutral and emotional words in unique background pictures. Approximately 24 hours later, context dependency of their memories was assessed.\n\nResults: Recognition data revealed that cortisol’s rapid effects impair emotional memory contextualization, while cortisol’s slow effects enhance it. Neutral memory contextualization remained unaltered by cortisol, irrespective of the timing of the drug.
003) after adjusting for age, personal cancer
history and prophylactic surgery. Similarly, those whose mothers are deceased reported significantly more perceived stress (P = 0.015), more intrusive thoughts related to cancer risk (P = 0.049), and more anxiety (P = 0.003). Higher bereavement scores were significantly associated with QOL and psychological measures. Biomarker correlates were consistent with and significantly correlated to the patient-reported psychological outcomes for those whose mothers were deceased. Conclusions: BRCA mutation carriers with a known maternal transmission whose mother is deceased report higher perceived stress and anxiety, lower QOL, and a stress-associated biomarker profile S3I-201 molecular weight that is potentially globally immune suppressive. (Psychosomatics 2012; 53:582-590)”
“High feed-cost constraints are currently threatening the livelihoods of farmers fattening lambs in developing Middle Eastern countries. Reduced-cost feeds and adequate management alternatives are needed for more efficient lamb-fattening systems. Therefore lamb fattening performances of different Awassi sheep genotypes, on different diets and fattening environments, were therefore evaluated. Two trials were conducted.
selleck products The first trial was conducted on-farm in northern Syria to assess the fattening performance of Syrian Awassi, and Turkish x Syrian Awassi crossbred lambs, and the suitability of 2 cost-reducing feeding diets compared to the traditional spring fattening diet of grazing green barley with supplementation (C): intensive P-gp inhibitor feeding based only on concentrate and barley straw (D1) and semi-intensive grazing on vetch (Vicia sativa) with minor supplementation using the same D1-mix (D2). Lambs of both genotypes did not significantly differ
in weight gain in the 49-day fattening period. There were no significant differences in weight gains among C, D1 and D2 diets: 14.4, 15.3 and 15.9 kg/lamb, respectively. The 02 diet reduced feeding costs by 20% and promoted high growth, notwithstanding its beneficial soil effects. The second trial was conducted on-station at the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Syria, to assess the fattening performance of lambs of the above 2 genotypes in addition to Turkish x (Turkish x Syrian) crossbred lambs, both in indoor and outdoor conditions. Paralleling the first trial, live weight gains of the 3 genotypes did not differ significantly. Fattening lambs under a more favorable and healthier outdoor environment using a simple shed, avoiding negative effects of lack of ventilation and high temperature, produced significantly more live weight gain (5.8 kg) per lamb than indoors.
001). However, TH increased phase singularity number (wavebreaks) during VF (P<0.05) and Si pacing (P<0.05). TH resulted in earlier onset of APD alternans (P<0.001), which was predominantly SDA (P<0.05), and increased pacing-induced VF episodes (P<0.05). TH also decreased CV, shortened wavelength, and enhanced APD dispersion and the spatial heterogeneity of CV restitution.\n\nConclusions: TH (30 degrees C) increased the vulnerability of pacing-induced VF by (1) facilitating wavebreaks during VF and Si pacing, and (2) enhancing proarrhythmic electrophysiological parameters, including promoting
earlier onset of APD alternans (predominantly SDA) during Pexidartinib nmr S1 pacing. (Circ J 2009; 73: 2214-2222)”
“Brain metastasis has become an increasing cause of
morbidity selleck inhibitor and mortality in cancer patients as the treatment of systemic disease has improved. Brain metastases frequently are highly vascularized, a process driven primarily by VEGF. VEGF mediates numerous changes within the vasculature including endothelial cell retraction and increased permeability, vasodilation, and new vessel formation. Here we describe a xenograft brain metastasis model that mimics the critical steps of metastasis including tumor cell dissemination and vascular adhesion, tumor growth and tumor associated angiogenesis. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was used to evaluate two aspects of the functional response of brain metastasis to the anti-VEGF receptor therapeutic, AZD2171 (Cediranib, RECENTIN (TM)). MR tracking of individual cells demonstrated that cediranib did not impede tumor
cell extravasation into the brain parenchyma despite evidence that anti-VEGF treatment decreases the permeability of the blood brain barrier. In a second assay, blood volume imaging using ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide revealed that treatment of well-developed brain metastasis with cediranib for 7 days led to a heterogeneous response with respect to individual tumors. Overall, there was a significant average decrease in the tumor vascular bed volume. The majority of large tumors demonstrated substantially reduced central blood volumes relative to normal brain while retaining a rim of elevated blood volume at Anlotinib in vitro the tumor brain interface. Small tumors or occasional large tumors displayed a static response. Models and assays such as those described here will be important for designing mechanism-based approaches to the use of anti-angiogenesis therapies for the treatment of brain metastasis.”
“Objective: We describe the short-term results of the patients who underwent transapical treatment of a paravalvular leak (PVL) in our centre. Background: Increasing experience with transapical aortic valve implantation has inspired us to explore this approach for prosthetic paravalvular leak reduction in high risk patients.
56A degrees to 10.6A degrees (CCW condition). The temporal index in the anterior-posterior direction varied from 0.711 to 1.103 (CW condition) and from 1.071 to 1.905 (CCW condition). The index in the right-left direction
varied from 0.773 to 2.081 (CW condition) and from 0.842 to 1.226 (CCW condition). Characteristic hollows or protrusions were detected from the first derivatives of head turning trajectories and were regarded as abrupt changes in angular velocity during head turning. The results HM781-36B cost suggest that these three indices are appropriate tools for evaluation of the constancy of head turning.”
“GPR54 is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) which was formerly an orphan receptor. Recent functional study of GPR54 revealed that the receptor has an essential
role to modulate sex-hormones including GnRH. Though antagonists of GPR54 are expected to be novel drugs for sex-hormone dependent diseases such as prostate cancer or endometriosis, small molecule GPR54 antagonists have not been reported. We have synthesized a series of 2-acylamino-4,6-diphenylpyridines to identify potent GPR54 antagonists. Detailed structure-activity relationship studies led to compound 9l with an IC(50) value click here of 3.7 nM in a GPR54 binding assay, and apparent antagonistic activity in a cellular functional assay. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The McpS chemoreceptor of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 recognizes six different tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates. However, the magnitude of the chemotactic response towards these compounds differs largely, which has led to distinguish between strong attractants (malate, succinate, fumarate, oxaloacetate)
and weak attractants (citrate, isocitrate). Citrate is abundantly present in plant tissues and root exudates and can serve as the only carbon source for growth. Citrate is known to form complexes with divalent cations which are also abundantly present in natural habitats of this bacterium. We have used isothermal titration calorimetry to study the formation of citrate-metal ion complexes. In all cases binding check details was entropy driven but significant differences in affinity were observed ranging from K-D = 157 mu M (for Mg2+) to 3 mu M (for Ni2+). Complex formation occurred over a range of pH and ionic strength. The ligand binding domain of McpS (McpS-LBD) was found to bind free citrate, but not complexes with physiologically relevant Mg2+ and Ca2+. In contrast, complexes with divalent cations which are present as trace elements (Co2+, Cd2+ and Ni2+) were recognized by McpS-LBD. This discrimination differs from other citrate sensing proteins. These results are discussed in the context of the three dimensional structure of free citrate and its complex with Mg2+. Chemotaxis assays using P. putida revealed that taxis towards the strong attractant malate is strongly reduced in the presence of free citrate. However, this reduction is much less important in the presence of citrate-Mg2+ complexes.
The endocannabinoids exert complex effects on behavioral responses mediating glucocorticoid effects on memory of traumatic experiences. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“In geographic regions where selenium (Se) soil concentrations are naturally low, the addition of Se to animal feed is necessary. Even though it is Selleckchem PU-H71 known that Se in grass and forage crops is primarily present in organic forms (especially as L-selenomethionine,
L-selenocystine, and L-selenocystathionine), the feeding of Se in the naturally occurring organic selenium (OSe) compounds produces higher blood and tissue Se levels than the inorganic Se (ISe) salts, and that animal metabolism of OSe and ISe is fundamentally different. Se is commonly added in inorganic form as sodium selenite to cattle feeds RSL3 ic50 because it is a less expensive source of supplemental Se then are OSe forms. A trial was conducted with growing cattle to determine if the addition of OSe versus ISe forms of Se in beef cattle feed produces differences in hepatic gene expression, thereby gaining insight into the metabolic consequence of feeding OSe versus ISe. Thirty maturing Angus heifers (261 +/- 6 days) were fed a corn silage-based diet with no Se supplementation for 75 days. Heifers
(body weight = 393 +/- 9 kg) then were randomly assigned (n = 10) and fed Se supplements that contained none (control) or 3 mg Se/day in ISe (sodium selenite) or OSe (Sel-PlexA (R)) form and enough of a common cracked corn/cottonseed hull-based diet (0.48 mg Se/day) to support 0.5 kg/day growth for 105 or 106 days. More Se was found in jugular whole blood
ABT-737 in vivo and red blood cells and biopsied liver tissue of ISe and OSe treatment animals than control animals, and OSe animals contained more Se in these tissues than did ISe. Microarray and bioinformatic analyses of liver tissue gene expression revealed that the content of at least 80 mRNA were affected by ISe or OSe treatments, including mRNA associated with nutrient metabolism; cellular growth, proliferation, and immune response; cell communication or signaling; and tissue/organ development and function. Overall, three Se supplement-dependent gene groups were identified: ISe-dependent, OSe-dependent, and Se form-independent. More specifically, both forms of supplementation appeared to upregulate mitochondrial gene expression capacity, whereas gene expression of a protein involved in antiviral capacity was downregulated in ISe-supplemented animals, and OSe-supplemented animals had reduced levels of mRNA encoding proteins known to be upregulated during oxidative stress and cancerous states.”
“Introduction and Aims. Post-transplant tuberculosis (TB) is a problem in successful long-term outcome of renal transplantation recipients.
There were no significant differences between the two groups of patients GSK2399872A in vivo for blood pressure, heart rate or oxygen saturation level. TTC patients presented a significant increase in sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA median 63.3 bursts/min [interquartile range 61.3
to 66.0] vs median 55.7 bursts/min [interquartile range 51.0 to 61.7]; p = 0.0089) and a decrease in spontaneous baroreflex control of sympathetic activity compared to matched control patients (spontaneous baroreflex control of sympathetic activity median 0.7%burst/mmHg [interquartile range 0.4 to 1.9] vs median 2.4%burst/mmHg [interquartile range 1.8 to 2.9]; p = 0.005). Conclusions: We report for the first time, through direct measurement of sympathetic nerve activity, that patients with TTC exhibit elevated SNS activity associated with a decrease in spontaneous baroreflex control of sympathetic activity. These data may explain the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of patient with TTC.”
“The APOBEC family members are involved in diverse biological functions. APOBEC3G restricts the replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus and retroelements by cytidine deamination on single- stranded DNA or by RNA binding(1-4). Here we report the high- resolution crystal structure of the carboxy- terminal deaminase
domain of APOBEC3G (APOBEC3G-CD2) purified from Escherichia coli. The APOBEC3G-CD2 structure has a five- stranded
beta- sheet core that is common to all known deaminase structures and closely resembles the structure of another APOBEC protein, APOBEC2 selleck chemical ( ref. 5). A comparison of APOBEC3G-CD2 with other deaminase structures shows a structural conservation of the active- site loops that are directly involved in substrate binding. In the X- ray structure, these APOBEC3G active- site loops form a continuous ‘substrate groove’ around the active centre. The orientation of this putative substrate groove differs Pexidartinib purchase markedly ( by 90 degrees) from the groove predicted by the NMR structure(6). We have introduced mutations around the groove, and have identified residues involved in substrate specificity, single- stranded DNA binding and deaminase activity. These results provide a basis for understanding the underlying mechanisms of substrate specificity for the APOBEC family.”
“Background To reduce lipid abnormalities and other side-effects associated with antiretroviral regimens containing lopinavir-ritonavir, patients might want to switch one or more components of their regimen. We compared substitution of raltegravir for lopinavir-ritonavir with continuation of lopinavir-ritonavir in HIV-infected patients with stable viral suppression on lopinavir-ritonavir-based combination therapy.\n\nMethods The SWITCHMRK I and 2 studies were multicentre, double-blind, double-dummy, phase 3, randomised controlled trials.
\n\nMethods\n\nTen bee venom-allergic children (mean age: 9.3 years; m/f, 7/3) with moderate to severe allergic reactions to bee stings received VIT. A separate group of seven children (mean age:
14 years; m/f, 5/2) were investigated 2 years after VIT withdrawal. Ten age- and gender-matched children served as non-allergic controls. selleck chemicals Allergen-specific serum IgG4 and IgE levels were measured by ELISA at baseline, after 2 years of VIT and 2 years after VIT withdrawal. Serum inhibitory activity was assessed using the facilitated-allergen binding (FAB) assay.\n\nResults\n\nSera obtained during VIT significantly inhibited allergen-IgE binding to B-cells (pre-treatment=104 +/- 23%; 2 years=46 +/- 15%; P < 0.001) when compared with see more sera obtained after treatment withdrawal and sera from normal controls. In parallel to FAB inhibition during VIT, significantly higher IgG4 levels were noted after immunotherapy (pre-treatment=8.6 +/- 2.3 AU; 2 years=26.7 +/- 3.5 AU; P < 0.001) compared with those observed after withdrawal and in the controls. In contrast, progressively lower IgE concentrations were observed compared with pre-treatment (44 +/- 7 AU)
in sera obtained after 2 years of VIT (25 +/- 5 AU; P < 0.01) and 2 years following the withdrawal of VIT (10 +/- 3 AU; P < 0.05).\n\nConclusions\n\nIn contrast to grass pollen immunotherapy, the persistent decline in venom-specific IgE
levels, rather than serum inhibitory activity for FAB, may be more relevant for long-term clinical efficacy of VIT.”
“Porous artificial bone substitutes, especially bone scaffolds coupled with osteobiologics, have been developed as an alternative to the traditional bone grafts. The bone scaffold should have a set of properties to provide mechanical support and simultaneously promote tissue regeneration. Among these properties, scaffold permeability is a determinant factor as it plays a major role in the ability for cells to penetrate the porous media and for nutrients to diffuse. Thus, the aim of this work is to characterize the permeability of the scaffold microstructure, using both computational and experimental methods. Computationally, permeability was estimated click here by homogenization methods applied to the problem of a fluid flow through a porous media. These homogenized permeability properties are compared with those obtained experimentally. For this purpose a simple experimental setup was used to test scaffolds built using Solid Free Form techniques. The obtained results show a linear correlation between the computational and the experimental permeability. Also, this study showed that permeability encompasses the influence of both porosity and pore size on mass transport, thus indicating its importance as a design parameter.
Ferret embryos at the morula (MR), compact morula (CM), and early blastocyst (EB) stages were vitrified using an Eppendorf microloader pipette tip as the chamber vessel. The rate of in vitro development was significantly (P < 0.05) PU-H71 research buy higher among embryos vitrified at the CM (93.6%) and EB (100%) stages relative to those vitrified at the MR stages (58.7%). No significant developmental differences
were observed when comparing CM and EB vitrified embryos with nonvitrified control CM (100%) and EB (100%) embryos. In addition, few differences in the ultrastructure of intracellular lipid droplets or in microfilament structure were observed between control embryos and embryos vitrified at any developmental stage. Vitrified-thawed CM/EB embryos cultured for 2 or 16 h before ET resulted in live birth rates of 71.3% and 77.4%, respectively. These rates were not significantly different from the control live birth rate (79.2%). However, culture for 32 h (25%) or 48 h (7.8%)
after vitrification significantly reduced the rate of live births. These data indicate that the pipette chamber vitrification technique significantly improves the live birth rate of transferred ferret embryos relative to current state-of-the-art methods.”
“Group-2 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, also known as dehydrins, are claimed to stabilize macromolecules against damage caused by freezing, dehydration, ionic or osmotic stresses. However, their precise function remains unknown. check details Here, we investigated the effect of wheat dehydrin (DHN-5) protein on the activity and thermostability of two distinct enzymes, ABT-737 supplier beta-glucosidase (bglG) and glucose oxidase/peroxidase (GOD/POD) in vitro. The purified DHN-5
protein had the capacity to preserve and stabilize the activity of bglG subjected to heat treatment. In addition, DHN-5 stabilized oxidizing enzymes, as it improved reliability in measuring glucose concentrations with a glucose oxidase/peroxidase (GOD/POD) kit while the temperature increased from 37 to 70 degrees C. All together the data presented provide evidence that DHN-5 is a dehydrin able to preserve enzyme activities in vitro from adverse effects induced by heating.”
“Two new indolizidine alkaloids, (+/-)-3-oxoisoelaeocarpine (1) and (+/-)-elaeocarpine N-oxide (2), along with three known alkaloids, (+/-)-isoelaeocarpine (3), (+/-)-elaeocarpine (4), and (-)-isoelaeocarpiline (5), were isolated from an EtOH extract of the branches and leaves of Elaeocarpus sphaericus. The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Furthermore, enantiomers of compounds 1 and 3 were separated on a chiral CD-Ph column, and their absolute configurations were determined by TD-DFT (time-dependent density-functional theory) quantum-chemical calculations of their electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra.