The advantages and disadvantages of applications of ion exchange and liquid membrane technologies for scandium recovery are reviewed and compared with solvent extraction. (C) 2011 Society of Chemical Industry”
The ability to predict birth trauma (BT) based on the currently recognized risk factors is limited and there is little information regarding the short-term neonatal outcome following BT. We aimed to identify risk factors Nutlin-3 cost for BT and to evaluate the effect of BT on short-term neonatal outcome.
Methods: A retrospective, cohort, case-control study of all cases of BT in a single tertiary center (1986-2009). The control group included the two subsequent full-term singleton neonates who did not experienced BT. Short-term neonatal outcome was compared between the groups including Apgar scores, NICU admission, duration of hospitalization and neurologic, respiratory and metabolic morbidity.
Results: Of the 118 280 singleton full-term newborns delivered during the study
period, 2874 were diagnosed with BT (24.3/1000). The most frequent types of BT were scalp injuries (63.9%, 15.5/1000) and clavicular fracture (32.1%, 7.7/1000). The following factors were found to be independent risk factors for BT: instrumental MK-2206 cost delivery (OR 7.5, 95% CI 6.3-8.9), birth weight, delivery during risk hours, parity, maternal age and neonatal head circumference. Cesarean delivery was the only factor protective of BT (OR click here 0.2, 95% CI 0.2-0.3). Neonates in the study group had a prolonged length of hospital stay (3.3 versus 2.7 d, p = 0.001), were more likely to be admitted to the NICU (3.9% versus 1.9%,
p < 0.001), and had a higher rate of jaundice (11.9% versus 7.1%, p < 0.001) and neurological morbidity (4.7% versus 2.3%, p < 0.001).
Conclusion: Instrumental delivery appears to be responsible for most cases of neonatal BT.”
“Surgical errors occurring early in the learning curve of laparoscopic surgery providers delayed the uptake and progress of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for years. This taught us a valuable lesson; innovations in surgical techniques should not be rapidly implemented until all aspects including applicability, feasibility and safety have been fully tested. In 2005, the Natural Orifice Surgery Consortium for Assessment and Research (NOSCAR) published a white paper highlighting the barriers to NOTES development and identifying key elements for its progress. One of these elements is the training of future providers. Proficiency-based, virtual reality simulation will offer a feasible alternative to animal testing once the safety and efficacy parameters of NOTES are established. Recent advances in imaging including computed tomography (CT) scanning, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning, and ultrasound (US) scanning can offer improved image registration and real-time tracking.