Furthermore, we conducted linear regression analyses to investiga

Furthermore, we conducted linear regression analyses to investigate whether: (1) the percentage of smokers in the workgroup predicts change in smoking status; (2) the average body mass index in the workgroup predicts weight change (change in BMI); and (3) average physical

activity level predicts change in physical activity. To avoid response bias introducing spurious associations, we calculated the number of smokers, levels of body mass index and physical activity as the average of baseline and follow-up values. In other words, we looked at the association between change in score and average score (Bland and Altman, 1986). Potential non-linear effects were evaluated through quadratic terms; these were selleck chemical significant with regard to smoking status. In the case of quadratic effects, we centralized the variable for average share of smokers to avoid issues with multicollinearity. All the statistical analyses were performed with SAS Proc Glimmix and Proc GLM, version 9.2 (SAS Institute). Table 1 presents descriptive BAY 73-4506 statistics of the participant and workgroups at baseline and follow-up. On average, the respondents were 46.5 years old and had worked at their current workplace for approximately 9.5 years

at baseline. 82% of the respondents worked as health care workers, while approximately 7% were managers and 10% held another type of work position (such as janitor and secretary). Respondents had an average baseline BMI of 24.91, which increased to 25.15 at follow-up. Of the respondents who smoked at baseline, 13.75% had quit by the time of follow-up. The analyses on workgroup level illustrate workgroup variation for some variables. For example, in the quartile of workgroups with lowest smoking, only 17% of employees smoke, while 52% smoked in the quartile of workgroups with highest level of smoking. Table 2 presents the results from the multilevel regression models, showing how much of the variation in each outcome

that is explained by workgroup. Three of the eight outcomes were significant at the 0.05 level. Specifically, we found that 6.49% of the variation in baseline smoking status (p < 0.0001; 95% CI: 4.46–10.22), 6.56% of the variation in amount smoked (p = < 0.0001; others 95% CI: 4.59–10.09) and 2.62% in BMI (p = 0.0002; 95% CI: 1.20–3.97) was explained by workgroup. Also, 1.11% of the variation in LTPA was explained by workgroup, albeit only borderline significant (p = 0.0620; 95% CI: 0.43–6.77). In small workgroups, only the variation in smoking and amount smoked was significantly explained by workgroups (results not shown). We found similar results in additional analyses where gender, age and cohabitation status were included as fixed effects (results not shown). Results from the linear regression analyses are presented in Table 3. We found support for two of our three tested outcomes.

All of the strains (n = 5) containing fHbp 1 1 (variant 1,

All of the strains (n = 5) containing fHbp 1.1 (variant 1, SNS 032 peptide 1, included in 4CMenB) and 81% (n = 77) of those from variant 1 but with a different peptide (e.g. 4, 110, 413, etc.) were predicted to be covered by the vaccine. None of the fHbp variant 2 or 3 strains had RPs above the PBT for fHbp and would require expression of a different vaccine antigen (i.e. PorA, NHBA, NadA) to be covered. Table 4 shows the distribution of fHbp peptides by cc, and

the relative coverage predicted by MATS specifically for this antigen. The most prevalent fHbp peptides were mostly associated with one cc and the fHbp-MATS phenotype was either covered (85% and 100% for 1.15 and 1.4, respectively) or not-covered (0% for 2.19). Of note, fHbp 1.15 occurred in isolates across Canada (e.g. click here Quebec, Ontario, British Columbia and Alberta) but was only found in cc269. Table 5 shows the distribution of NHBA peptides by cc, and the relative coverage predicted by MATS specifically for this antigen. Thirty-three different NHBA peptides were identified with 18 occurring once. The most frequent peptides were 21 (n = 51), 2 (n = 23) 112 (n = 14) and 6 (n = 14). Peptides 21, 2 and 6 were distributed across all age groups, while peptide 112 was primarily from infants and young children.

Peptides 21 and 112 were found primarily in Québec (peptide 21, n = 40 and peptide 112, n = 12) while peptide 6 was concentrated in Ontario (n = 13). Peptide 2 was found everywhere except Québec. Of these 4 common peptides 71% (n = 36) of peptide 21, and 96% (n = 22) of peptide 2 had RPs over the NHBA PBT thus were predicted to be covered by the 4CMenB vaccine whilst only 7% of peptides 112 (n = 1) and 6 (n = 1) were predicted to be covered. NHBA peptide 2, the peptide contained within 4CMenB, was only found in cc41/44 where it constituted 41% (23/51) of the NHBA peptides in cc41/44 with MATS predicting Phosphoprotein phosphatase coverage of 96% (22/23) ( Table 5), whereas peptide 21 was found in two different ccs (cc269 n = 40 and cc35 n = 11) with a significantly

different NHBA-MATS coverage phenotype (85% and 18%, respectively, P < 0.0001), suggesting a consistently lower level of NHBA expression in cc35 compared to cc269. The nadA gene was found in 12 isolates but only 2 isolates, bearing NadA alleles 2 and 3, expressed NadA with a RP over the PBT to be covered by the 4CMenB vaccine. The subvariant NadA-1.1, which accounted for half (n = 6) of the isolates with a nadA gene, was not predicted to be covered. Geographically, the prevalence of fHbp and NHBA antigen combinations were diverse except for two antigen combinations that were found primarily in Québec: NHBA 112 fHbp 2.19 in 15.3% (n = 11) of strains from Québec (and 1 from Ontario) and occurred primarily in infants (n = 9); and NHBA 21 fHbp 1.15 was found in 49.0% (n = 35) of Québec strains (and 2 Vancouver strains) across all age groups. Of these two common antigen combination 8.3% (n = 1) of NHBA 112 fHbp 2.

The vaccine manufacturer’s campaign message was to “guard against

The vaccine manufacturer’s campaign message was to “guard against cervical cancer™”, which also included a website (http://www.cervicalcancer.com.au). In New South Wales, the State Government Department of Health (NSW Health) created information sheets for parents in order to ensure informed consent for vaccination of their daughters. As informed by Department of Education guidelines, only parental consent is required for school-based vaccination of young adolescents in NSW [13]. Implicit in this

requirement is an expectation that parents will discuss the vaccine with their adolescents. Each school coordinates the administration of the school vaccination program, liases with the local public health area immunisation team, and orders consent forms and information sheets (attached in Appendix HIF cancer A). NSW Health delivered HPV vaccine to girls in years 10–12 (ages 16–18) in 2007, to girls in years 7–10 (12–16) in 2008, and from 2009 to girls in the routine vaccination cohort (year 7; age 12). Our research aimed to explore factors related to the vaccination process. The analysis and data presented focus on the knowledge and understanding girls and their parents expressed through focus groups and interviews. Further themes are explored in forthcoming publications. Data was collected from participants Bioactive Compound high throughput screening within the same school year as their participation in the vaccination program. At the time of data

collection, all participants had received information about HPV vaccination, made a decision about uptake of the vaccine, and received at least one dose if consent Megestrol Acetate was procured. The time lapsed between receiving information and study participation ranged from 1 to 8 months, based on school availability for study participation. Purposive sampling (schools with low and high HPV vaccine uptake, and schools from Public, Catholic, and Independent sectors) was utilized to approach participants from a broad range of vaccination experiences (including refusals). A total of 9 schools participated. Key personnel involved in the HPV vaccination process in each of

the schools were identified and these individuals were approached for interviews and for assistance in recruitment of girls and parents from their school. Each school chose to do this slightly differently. Some schools sent letters home with all adolescent girls in a year cohort, while other schools chose girls in specific classes (i.e. health class) to send letters home with. Once focus groups with girls and interviews with parents were arranged, the researchers conducted the interviews at the school’s convenience, and on school grounds. Letters invited adolescent girls and their parents to participate in the study independently, though parents could participate in an interview whether or not their daughter participated in a focus group, and vice versa.

Apart from scientific study, general morphological description li

Apart from scientific study, general morphological description like size, colour, taste,

fracture and texture facilitates in identifying plant raw drugs. Consequently macroscopic descriptions of roots were studied according to T.E. Wallis.12 The etymological derivations were compiled from ‘Namarupajnanam’. The term ‘Namarupajnanam’ that represents nama (names) and rupa (characters) developed recently as a part of ‘Dravyagunavijnana’ in which identification of plants is studied in ancient and medieval approach to describe the plants by names and synonyms.13 Physicochemical parameters were done to analyse moisture content, total ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol solubility and water solubility as per quality standards of API.9 Phytochemical screening was performed by using standard OSI906 procedures14 in order to establish chemical profile. Dried, powdered (mesh size 85) root samples of the species under study were successively extracted with solvents of increasing polarity, hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, methanol and water at 60–70 °C for 8 complete cycles. Selleckchem MEK inhibitor All root extracts were concentrated at 40–45 °C by using a rotary evaporator (Rotavapor R-3, Buchi, Switzerland) to 50 mL and tested for the presence of chemical constituents. One gram of each powdered

root sample of Patala namely, S. chelonoides, S. tetragonum and R. xylocarpa sieved (Mesh No. 85) was refluxed in water bath with methanol (50 mL) and filtered through Whatman No. 1 filter paper. These samples were subjected to extraction until it becomes colourless with same residue. Filtered extracts were evaporated by using rotary evaporator, followed by dissolving the residue with methanol (10 mL) and aliquots were taken for HPTLC analysis. The standard p-coumaric acid (purity ≥98%) HPLC purchased

from Sigma–Aldrich was dissolved in methanol to prepare working solution of 0.1 mg/mL concentration. The qualitative HPTLC analysis was no performed with 10 μL of methanolic extracts and standard solution of different concentrations (2–10 μL containing 20–100 μg/mL) using a solvent system, Toluene: Ethyl Acetate: Acetic Acid: Formic Acid (10:10:0.2:0.2 V/V). After development, the plate was dried in an oven at 110 °C for 10 min. The Rf values of marker and the compound of interest were measured and subjected to densitometric scan at λ = 310 nm in order to check the identity of the bands corresponding to the standard marker compound. The roots of S. chelonoides, S. tetragonum, and R. xylocarpa are similar in colour, texture and taste. The comparative analyses of macroscopic character are given in Table 2. The Ayurvedic literature describes Patala as: it is a tree having black peduncles. The leaflets become very rough on maturity. The flowers are fragrant, copper coloured and look like a pitcher shape. The seeds resemble like that of a human eye ball.


however, the IFNb plasmid only provided a l


however, the IFNb plasmid only provided a low level of protection despite the fact that it also caused systemic induction of antiviral genes. As the IFN plasmids showed such a large difference in protective effect 8 weeks after injection, we wanted to study if they induced different levels of antiviral proteins in liver and heart, Selleck Birinapant which are strongly affected by ISAV infection. Immunoblotting of Mx and ISG15 were used for this purpose. As shown in Fig. 5A and B, fish injected with IFNb and IFNc plasmids showed similar strong expression of Mx, free ISG15 or ISG15 conjugates in liver 8 weeks after injection while fish injected with IFNa1 plasmid or control plasmid showed faint or no expression of these proteins. These

data did thus not resolve the difference in protection obtained with the IFNb and IFNc plasmids. However, IFNc plasmid induced a higher level of Mx protein in heart compared to IFNb plasmid although this experiment was conducted 14 days after plasmid injection (Fig. 5C). Mx protein was at similar low levels in heart of fish injected with IFNa1 and control plasmid. The difference in protective effects between IFNb and IFNc plasmids might be due to differences in induction of antiviral proteins in cell types, which are important for ISAV infectivity. Accordingly, we decided to do immunohistochemistry of Mx protein in liver and heart of fish 8 weeks after injection with PBS or IFNa1, IFNb http://www.selleckchem.com/products/pd-0332991-palbociclib-isethionate.html and IFNc plasmids (Fig. 6). Mx-staining was observed throughout Astemizole the liver tissue from IFNb and IFNc treated fish (Fig. 6C and D) while little Mx-staining was seen in liver of PBS and IFNa1

treated fish (Fig. 6A and B). In the IFNb and IFNc groups, Mx was relatively strongly stained in some cells resembling mammalian Kuppfer cells and more weakly stained in hepatocytes. Interestingly, endothelial cells of blood vessels appeared to be more strongly stained for Mx in liver from fish treated with IFNc plasmid than from fish treated with IFNb plasmid. In heart, stratum compactum and stratum spongiosum was strongly stained in IFNc plasmid treated fish (Fig. 6H), but more weakly stained in fish treated with IFNb plasmid (Fig. 6G). Heart from fish treated with PBS or IFNa1 plasmid showed little or no staining (Fig. 6E and F). Previous work has shown that recombinant IFNa1, IFNb and IFNc protect salmon cells against IPNV and ISAV infection in vitro, IFNa1 and IFNc having similar and stronger antiviral activity than IFNb [8] and [9]. In the present work we have studied in vivo antiviral activity of these IFNs delivered as genes in expression plasmids injected i.m., which demonstrated that IFNb and IFNc plasmids, but not IFNa1 plasmid induced systemic up-regulation of antiviral genes in live Atlantic salmon. Notably, only i.m.

However, many home-based program models have required multiple ho

However, many home-based program models have required multiple home visits from health professionals and are therefore expensive to run, resulting in limited uptake in the clinical setting. A large study, powered for equivalence, has recently shown similar outcomes for self-monitored home pulmonary rehabilitation and hospital-based outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation for people with moderate to severe ON 1910 COPD (Maltais et al 2008). If these benefits of home-based, unsupervised pulmonary rehabilitation can be reproduced at a reasonable cost, this may be a feasible method for overcoming one important barrier to attendance at outpatient

pulmonary rehabilitation programs. Fifteen out of 18 participants who did not complete the program reported that becoming unwell had affected their ability to participate. Surprisingly few of these participants had an exacerbation of their lung condition, with other medical conditions reported more frequently. Most patients undergoing pulmonary rehabilitation have one or more comorbidities and this may limit the benefits that can be attained, even in those who can complete the program (Crisafulli et al 2008). Pain related to other medical conditions was the most commonly reported comorbidity influencing completion in this study. The pain experiences in people with COPD have

been studied infrequently, with most data gathered from people with endstage disease (Lohne et al 2010). The www.selleckchem.com/products/AG-014699.html current study suggests

that pain may be experienced by people with COPD across the range of disease severity and should be taken into account during program design and patient assessment. Alternative models for pulmonary rehabilitation such as water-based exercise (Rae and White 2009) may be appropriate for some patients in whom pain limits participation. Given that most of those participants who could not complete the program ascribed high value to pulmonary rehabilitation and expressed a desire to complete it in the future, flexible program models are required that allow those who become unwell to rejoin a suitable pulmonary rehabilitation when they are able Megestrol Acetate to do so. A strength of this study is that a significant number of participants who chose not to attend pulmonary rehabilitation at all were included. These patients have been included infrequently in previous studies and this is the largest study examining barriers to uptake of a clinical pulmonary rehabilitation program which is representative of usual care (Arnold et al 2006, Fischer et al 2007). Themes emerging from this study show that while most of the barriers to uptake are similar to those for completion, a lack of perceived benefit has an important role in the decision to commence a pulmonary rehabilitation program; this theme was much less evident amongst non-completers, who had some experience of attending a pulmonary rehabilitation program.

, 1990, Watanabe et al , 1992, Magariños and McEwen, 1995a and Ma

, 1990, Watanabe et al., 1992, Magariños and McEwen, 1995a and Magariños and McEwen, 1995b). Importantly, glucocorticoid activity also oscillates in synchrony with circadian and ultradian rhythms, Osimertinib manufacturer independent of external stressors (Dekloet, 1991 and Droste et al., 2008). Recent work indicates that chronic stress disrupts these glucocorticoid rhythms, which play critical roles in regulating synaptic remodeling after learning and during development (Liston et al.,

2013). This review will focus on understanding how disrupted glucocorticoid oscillations and synergistic interactions with associated signaling pathways may contribute to the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders in vulnerable individuals. Disruptions in connectivity across distributed neural networks are common features of stress-related neuropsychiatric conditions, and understanding how they arise may yield new insights into mechanisms of resilience and vulnerability. Stress ISRIB molecular weight has potent effects on apical dendrites and postsynaptic dendritic spines in multiple brain regions. In the hippocampus,

which plays an important negative feedback role in HPA axis regulation, chronic stress causes atrophy of apical dendrites in CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cells and a decrease in the density of postsynaptic dendritic spines (Jacobson and Sapolsky, 1991, Magariños and McEwen, 1995a, Magariños and McEwen, 1995b, Magariños et al., 1996, Magariños et al., 1997, Sousa et al., 2000 and Vyas et al., 2002). Chronic stress also disrupts

unless neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (Gould et al., 1997 and Shors, 2006). Other studies have identified associated behavioral deficits in spatial learning and memory tasks such as the radial arm and Y mazes (Luine et al., 1994, Conrad et al., 1996 and Liston et al., 2006). In contrast, in the amygdala, which up-regulates HPA axis activity, chronic stress causes hypertrophy of dendritic arbors, accompanied by a facilitation of aversive learning and heightened fear and anxiety (Vyas et al., 2002 and Vyas et al., 2003). Importantly, analogous effects have been observed in parallel rodent and human neuroimaging studies of the prefrontal cortex (Fig. 1). Many of these studies have focused on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in humans, and the medial prefrontal cortex in rodents, as these regions share important functional and neuroanatomical similarities (Ongur and Price, 2000 and Dalley et al., 2004), although it should be noted that rodents do have a dorsal prefrontal cortex, which may contribute to associated cognitive functions (Lai et al., 2012). In rats, pyramidal cells in layer II/III of the medial PFC show a pattern of structural changes similar to what has been observed in the hippocampus: retraction of apical dendritic branches and reduced spine density after repeated stress exposure (Cook and Wellman, 2004, Radley et al., 2004, Radley et al., 2006, Radley et al., 2013, Izquierdo et al., 2006 and Shansky et al.

It is clearly evident from the above findings that the test sampl

It is clearly evident from the above findings that the test samples of A. blanchetii possess different types of bioactivities. Therefore, the plant is a good candidate for carrying out further chemical and biological studies to isolate the active principles to correlate with its biological activities. All authors LY2109761 nmr have none to declare. “
“Metoclopramide is chemically 4-amino-5-chloro-N-[2-(diethylamino)ethyl]-2-methoxybenzamide, an antiemetic and gastroprokinetic agent. It is commonly used to treat nausea and vomiting, to facilitate gastric emptying in people with gastroparesis, and as a treatment

for gastric stasis often associated with migraine headaches. The antiemetic action of Metoclopramide is due to its antagonist activity at D2 receptors in the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) in the central nervous system (CNS)—this action prevents nausea and vomiting triggered by most stimuli. 1 At higher doses, 5-HT3 antagonist activity may also contribute to the antiemetic effect. The selleck gastroprokinetic activity

of Metoclopramide is mediated by muscarinic activity, D2 receptor antagonist activity and 5-HT4 receptor agonist activity. 2 Metoclopramide is freely soluble in water and ethanol and practically insoluble in ether. The molecular formula is C14H22ClN3O2, which corresponds to a molecular weight of 299.80. Very few analytical methods have been reported for the quantitative determination of Metoclopramide in formulations as well as biological fluids. These include gas chromatography3 and 4 and high performance liquid chromatography.5 and 6 These previously published methods comprise of complicated mobile systems and are not directly applicable for this novel type of dosage form which is prepared and need more investigation for method development and validation. However, no stability indicating UPLC methods were reported to estimate Metoclopramide and its degradation products (Fig. 1). The proposed method was stability indicating

by which all the degradation products of Metoclopramide Carnitine dehydrogenase can be estimated quantitatively at very low levels. Metoclopramide (purity 99.0%) and standard materials of degradation products were obtained from Hospira Health Care India Pvt Ltd, Chennai, India. Monobasic sodium phosphate, pentane-1-sulfonic acid sodium salt, orthophosphoric acid and acetonitrile were purchased from Ranbaxy Chemicals, New Delhi, India and all are of HPLC grade. Water was purified by milli-Q-water purification system (Millipore, Bedford, MA, USA) and used for preparation of all the solutions. The analysis was performed using Waters Acquity system equipped with a binary solvent delivery pump and PDA detector. Data acquisition and processing were done by using Empower2 software version FR5 (Waters Corporation, USA). The chromatographic separation was performed using a Waters X-terra RP18 column (150 × 4.6 mm), 3.5 μ particle column. The mobile phase was a mixture of mobile phase A and mobile phase B.

1 Most Listeria

1 Most Listeria Apoptosis Compound Library in vitro infections are sub clinical they may go unnoticed. However, in some cases, a listeria infection can lead to life-threatening complications such as septicemia and meningitis. Foodborne diseases cause approximately 76 million

illnesses, 325,000 hospitalizations, and 5000 deaths in all over the world each year. 2Listeria infections are caused by eating food contaminated with the bacteria L. monocytogenes, which can also be found in water, soil etc. Humans are often afflicted to listeria by consuming: Unpasteurized milk or foods made with unpasteurized milk, soft cheeses, hot dogs and deli meats that have been contaminated after processing, raw vegetables that have been contaminated from the soil or from contaminated manure used as fertilizer and infected animal meat etc.

3 Therefore the present study describes the isolation of two novel strains of L. monocytogenes from retail chicken, beef meat and seafood samples. Samples were collected from various supermarkets and open markets in and around Andhra Pradesh. The samples were transported in clean plastic bags chilled on ice to the laboratory within 1 h after sampling. Twenty-five g of each sample was placed into a bag containing 225 mL of Half Fraser’s broth. 100 μL of each sample were inoculated into 10 mL of Fraser’s broth (FB) in a culture tube and incubated at 37 °C with shaking (250 rpm) for 48 h. Aliquots (60 μL) of positive FB cultures, i.e. dark color caused by esculin hydrolysis, were plated individually on BBL

CHROM agar and PALCAM agar (Oxoid), and the plates were incubated at 37 °C for 48 h. The greenish-black colonies on the PALCAM agar and the blue colonies with a white halo Fulvestrant in vitro on the BBL CHROM agar were separately subcultured onto tryptone soy agar (TSA) (Oxoid) supplemented with 2% of soy yeast extract (TSYEA) (Oxoid) and incubated at 37 °C overnight. Genomic DNA was extracted from the bacterial cells grown at 37 °C overnight in tryptic soy broth (TSB) using a DNA extraction kit. The PCR mixture (25 μL) consisted of: 1 μM of each primer, 100 ng of DNA template, 2.5 μL of 10× Taq PCR buffer, 0.2 mM dNTP, 2 mM MgCl2, and 1 unit of Taq DNA polymerase (Fermentas, St. Leon-Rot, Germany). The PCR mixture was subjected to L-NAME HCl the following thermal cycle conditions using the Lifecycler (Bio-Rad, California, USA): 5 min of 95 °C before 30 cycles of amplification at 95 °C for 45 s, 60 °C for 45 s, and 72 °C for 45 s. After the amplification of the DNA in PCR we took the PCR sample in a fresh vial and added 5 μL of 3 M sodium acetate solution (pH = 4.6) and 100 μL of absolute ethanol in it and mixed it thoroughly. Then we vortexed the vial and left it at −20 °C for 30–40 min to precipitate the PCR products. Then it was subjected to centrifugation for 5 min at 10,000 rpm. To the pellet we added 300 μL of 70% ethanol, without mixing, it was again subjected to centrifugation for 5 min at 10,000 rpm. The produced pellet was air dried until the ethanol effervescence is removed.

Ultraviolet spectra were collected every 30 s during the dissolut

Ultraviolet spectra were collected every 30 s during the dissolution experiment to determine the dissolution rate profiles for TPa and TPm in our channel flow cell system. Fig. 7 shows the dissolution profiles for TPa (solid lines) and TPm compacts (dashed lines). From Fig. 7, it can be seen that TPa initially increases to peak values of between 150 and 190 μg/mL, while the TPm reaches concentrations of between 70 and 80 μg/mL.

Subsequently, there is a sharp drop in the first few minutes of the TPa dissolution that is not seen for the TPm dissolution. This change in dissolution behavior is due to a solvent-mediated transformation wherein the dissolving TPa (solubility 12 mg/mL RG-7204 at 25 °C [29]) reaches supersaturation which causes precipitation and growth of the more stable but less soluble TPm (solubility 6 mg/mL at 25 °C [29]) crystals that grow on the surface of the TPa compacts during dissolution. The surface growth of TPm on TPa samples undergoing dissolution has also been observed in other studies, using offline XRPD analysis [17] and inline spontaneous Raman spectroscopy [10] and [30]. The UV data shown in Fig. 7 correlate

well with the CARS images (Fig. 6) that were recorded during the dissolution experiments. The dissolution rate peaked after about 2 min which related to about half of the microscope field www.selleckchem.com/products/scr7.html of view covered in TPm needle-shaped crystals. After about 5 min, the dissolution rate reached a plateau at the same time the crystal growth appeared to completely

cover the field of view. Fig. 7 shows that the TPm dissolution rate quickly reached a steady state after around 1 min and remained there for the duration of the experiment. secondly The steady-state dissolution rates were calculated to be 360 ± 37 μg/min/cm2 and 320 ± 12 μg/min/cm2 for the compacts prepared from TPa and TPm, respectively. The slightly higher dissolution rate (not statistically significant) for the compacts originally composed of TPa after surface conversion to TPm can be attributed to the TPm needle growth resulting in a larger surface area. In situ CARS dissolution imaging identified delayed TPm crystal growth on the surface of TPa compacts undergoing dissolution using a MC solution (0.45% w/v) as the dissolution medium. Fig. 8 shows in situ single-frequency CARS snapshots taken from a dissolution video. The TPm crystal growth was delayed as it was first observed after approximately 300 s (5 min), and the surface coverage with TPm was incomplete after the duration of the experiment (15 min). Additionally, the TPm crystals were of a different morphology than previously seen when using water as the dissolution medium. Instead of the thin needle-like structure seen growing in water, there was a broad almost sheet-like growth along the surface of the compact. The delayed onset of crystal growth and different morphologies suggests that the polymer affects both nucleation and crystal growth.