Women who had never used EC and who had more than one episode of unprotected sex within the past month were less likely to request EC when use was indicated, learn more while single women were more likely to request EC.\n\nConclusions: Counseling regarding EC options is particularly important for women seeking same-day pregnancy testing who do not desire pregnancy. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
of idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is difficult, and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. However, many drugs causing DILI are considered to form reactive metabolites and covalently bind to cellular macromolecules in the liver. The objective of this study was to clarify whether the risk of idiosyncratic DILI can be estimated by comparing in vitro covalent binding (CB) levels among 12 positive compounds (acetaminophen, alpidem, bromfenac, carbamazepine, diclofenac, flutamide, imipramine, nefazodone, tacrine, ticlopidine, tienilic acid, and troglitazone) for DILI and 12 negative compounds (acetylsalicylic
acid, caffeine, dexamethasone, losartan, ibuprofen, paroxetine, pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, sertraline, theophylline, venlafaxine, and zolpidem). After incubation with human liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH, there was a large overlap in the distribution of CB amounts between the positive and negative groups. On addition of UDP-glucuronic acid (UDPGA) as a cofactor for glucuronidation, the CB levels of bromfenac and diclofenac were increased. With addition of nucleophilic glutathione (GSH), values for most compounds were decreased. However, separation A-1155463 concentration of the two groups on the basis of CB could not be improved by UDPGA or GSH. Furthermore, CB with human hepatocytes also failed to discriminate positive from negative compounds. Therefore, the CB amount alone is not sufficient for risk assessment of DILI. In contrast, when the CB amount Selleck AR-13324 was multiplied by the maximum daily dose, which
may reflect maximum hepatic exposure, the two groups did become discriminated. Taken together, our findings suggest that the combination of CB amount and daily dose can estimate the risk of idiosyncratic DILI.”
“Various conjugates of anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox) covalently bound by the hydrolytically degradable hydrazone bond to the drug carrier based on N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymers were synthesised. Structure of the conjugates differed in the type and the content of hydrophobic substituent (dodecyl, oleic acid and cholesterol moieties) introduced into the polymer structure. In aqueous solutions the conjugates self-assembled into high-molecular-weight suprantolecular structures, such as polymeric micelles or stable hydrophilic nanoparticles 13-37 nm in diameter, depending on the type and the content of hydrophobic substituents. Treatment of mice bearing EL-4 T cell lymphoma with the conjugates in the therapeutic regime of drug administration (i.v.