88)) per visit compared to non-rotavirus outpatient visits (INR 1

88)) per visit compared to non-rotavirus outpatient visits (INR 1787 (USD 29.74)) Capmatinib clinical trial [10]. A national rotavirus vaccination program would

be cost-effective in India although given the heterogeneity of rotavirus disease burden across geographic and socioeconomic subgroups, its impact and cost-effectiveness will not be uniform. One study found that a rotavirus vaccination program would prevent 35,000 deaths nationally at an average cost of USD 118 (INR 7081) per DALY averted [18]. Reductions geographic and socioeconomic disparities could prevent an additional 9400 deaths. In poorer states with high mortality, the primary justification for vaccine introduction would be the potential reduction in diarrhea mortality whereas in wealthier states with lower

mortality, the primary benefit would be averted costs [18]. A second cost effectiveness study using the IndiaSim model also examined the cost-effectiveness of a national rotavirus vaccination taking into account the geographic variability of health and wealth. In this study, three scenarios were examined including this website one where rotavirus vaccine was introduced at the routine coverage levels of the other routine vaccines, a second where coverage was increased to 90% randomly across the population, and a third where targeted rural and urban regions with coverage below 90% at baseline were targeted [19]. In all three scenarios, rotavirus vaccines were cost saving but the impact of vaccination was greatest under scenario 3. Rotavirus vaccine introduction averted 21.2 deaths and $248,203

(INR 14.9 million) in out-of-pocket costs per 100,000 children <5 years of age under scenario 1 and deaths and cost averted increased under the other two scenarios. The reduced burden was highest for the poor and in rural areas. Following its introduction into the US, a first generation rotavirus vaccine was found to have an increased risk of intussusception of ∼1 excess case of intussusception for every 10,000 children vaccinated and was subsequently withdrawn from the market less than one year after its introduction [20]. For the two second generation vaccines that are currently available secondly internationally, large safety studies were conducted as part of the clinical trials and found no increased risk of intussusception within 31 or 42 days of vaccination [21] and [22]. However, continued post-marketing surveillance has detected a small increased risk of 1–5 cases of intussusception per 100,000 children vaccinated mainly within the first week following the first dose [23], [24], [25], [26], [27], [28] and [29]. While there was no association with intussusception was observed in the clinical trial of 116E vaccine [1], post-marketing monitoring of intussusception with this and other Indian-manufactured rotavirus vaccines is important, especially within specified risk windows.

Similar attempts to use biologically meaningful characteristics i

Similar attempts to use biologically meaningful characteristics in GSA procedure have been presented in Yoon and Deisboeck (2009) and Kim et al. (2010). Yoon et al. used MPSA Anti-infection Compound Library to identify network components controlling Erk responses to be either transient or sustained. For this purpose, two characteristic measures were introduced, the amplitude and the duration of the Erk signal, to split all parameter sets into binary classes. In Kim

et al. Sobol’s algorithm was applied to predict the parameters that control the characteristic, related to the delay time to cell death – a biologically-relevant quantity, which was not a state variable of the model. In both studies application of GSA techniques provided a valuable insight into Selleckchem MG132 the mechanism controlling input–output behaviour

of the networks, with potential to be used for identification of biomarkers for pharmaceutical drug discovery processes. The flowchart of our GSA procedure is presented in Fig. 2. Further we briefly outline key stages of the proposed GSA procedure and illustrate how each of them was implemented for our test system – ErbB2/3 network model. Step 1: Definition of the inputs to the method In our GSA implementation the inputs to the method include: S.1.1. A kinetic model of a signalling pathway, calibrated on a set of time-series data Because of our specific interest in identification of anti-cancer drug targets and the analysis of drug resistance, our version of GSA uses as an input a kinetic model of a signalling pathway, calibrated on a particular set of time-series data. Any model calibrated in this

way should contain a set of parameters, identified from a fitting procedure, to achieve the best match between experimental curves and relevant model trajectories. Suitable data represent time course profiles of phosphorylated proteins, registered after stimulation of the signalling with relevant receptor ligands. Our ErbB2/3 network model was calibrated on the set of time course profiles of pErbB3, pErk and pAkt registered after stimulation of PE04 cells with heregulin, Rolziracetam in the presence and absence of anti-ErbB2 inhibitor pertuzumab (see (Faratian et al., 2009b) and Fig. S6 in Additional File 1). Note that in general GSA does not require a calibrated model as an input, but here calibration is needed to confirm the validity of the model. However, full identifiability of the model is not required. S.1.2. Definition of a set of model parameters to perturb Depending on the purpose of the analysis the set can include either all system parameters or a particular sub-set. In our analysis of the ErbB2/3 network we perturbed all model parameters, including kinetic constants and total concentrations of the signalling proteins, with exception of the parameters corresponding to the concentration of external compounds, such as receptor ligands (heregulin-β, (HRG)) and inhibitors (pertuzumab (Per)), which were fixed at their values used in the experiments.

The committee analyses data that encompass the epidemiological, a

The committee analyses data that encompass the epidemiological, antigenic and genetic characteristics of the most recently circulating influenza viruses as well as preliminary vaccine effectiveness data where they are available. In addition, panels of antisera from individuals (children, adults and elderly) who received seasonal trivalent inactivated vaccines are

tested to measure levels of antibodies to currently circulating influenza viruses. The committee assesses which viruses are likely to predominate in the forthcoming season and recommends vaccine candidates accordingly. With the WHO recommendations in mind, national and international regulatory agencies should determine which influenza viruses are best suited for influenza

vaccines to be licensed find more in their country. In the present report we describe the basis for the selection of candidate vaccine viruses recommended by the WHO in the 2013–2014 Northern Hemisphere influenza season. This report describes only those data that were available at the time of the WHO VCM held from February 18–20, 2013, in Geneva, Switzerland. The recommended viruses in the 2013–2014 Northern Hemisphere influenza season were: – an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus. Influenza activity between the previous WHO VCM for seasonal influenza in September this website 2012 [1] and the VCM in February 2013 was reported by NICs and collated oxyclozanide in the WHO FluNet database (see http://www.who.int/flunet). During

this period, influenza activity was reported worldwide. Influenza activity in countries in the Northern Hemisphere was low in September and October but increased activity was reported in North America in November, in Europe from December onwards and in a number of countries in Asia in December or January. In the Southern Hemisphere, influenza activity generally declined from September onwards while in tropical areas many countries reported outbreaks of varying intensity. Regional A(H1N1)pdm09 activity was reported by a few countries in Asia, Central and South America as well as central Africa. In January, many countries in northern, eastern and central Europe and northern Africa (Algeria) had regional and widespread outbreaks. Localised and sporadic activity was also reported in many other countries in northern Africa, Asia and North America. Influenza A(H3N2) virus activity increased in November and caused widespread outbreaks in Canada and the United States of America where it was the predominant circulating virus subtype.

Ltd ) This procedure was repeated four times with 15-s intervals

Ltd.). This procedure was repeated four times with 15-s intervals. Cued and contextual tests were carried out 1 day after fear conditioning. For the cued test, the freezing response was measured in the neutral cage for 1 min in the presence of a continuous-tone stimulus identical to the conditioned stimulus. For the contextual test, mice were placed in the conditioning cage, and the freezing response was measured for 2 min in the absence of the conditioned stimulus. All results were expressed as the mean ± S.E.M. for each group. The difference

among groups was analyzed with a one-way, two-way, or repeated ANOVA, followed by the Student–Newman–Keuls NVP-BKM120 multiple range-test. The Student’s t-test was used to compare two sets of data. IgG antibodies to Aβ were detected in the serum of nasally treated Tg2576 mice with rSev-Aβ at 4 weeks and less amount at 8 weeks after vaccination (Fig. 2a). However, intramuscularly treated mice showed poor antibody response (not shown). The immune sera from nasally vaccinated mice stained the senile plaque amyloid in the tissue. Nasal vaccination with rSeV-Aβ resulted in marked reduction of Aβ burden in the mTOR inhibitor frontal cortex, parietal association cortex and hippocampus compared to the control (Fig. 2b and c). Thioflavin S-positive senile

plaques were also significantly reduced in vaccinated mice. However, intramuscular injection of rSeV-Aβ had little effects on Aβ clearance (Fig. 2d and e). Quantitative analyses showed a marked reduction of Aβ deposition in nasally vaccinated mice compared to the control (Fig. 2f), but intramuscular injection showed no difference in Aβ clearance (Fig. 2g). To investigate the expression of Aβ43 in the olfactory bulb and brain stem through trafficking of rSeV via the olfactory or trigeminal nerves, we stained the brain tissue with anti-Aβ43 antibody. Although Tg2576

mice expressed very little endogenous Aβ43, we could not find any Aβ43 depositions after the nasal administration of rSeV-Aβ (data not shown). Soluble/insoluble Aβ40 and Aβ42 in brain homogenate fractions extracted with TBS or 2% SDS and 70% formic acid were quantified using the sandwich ELISA. Nasal vaccination of rSeV-Aβ significantly reduced the contents of soluble and insoluble Aβ40 and Aβ42 compared to the control Oxalosuccinic acid (Aβ40 in TBS, p = 0.04; 2% SDS, p = 0.027; formic acid, p = 0.001. Aβ42 in TBS, p = 0.008; 2% SDS, p = 0.01; formic acid, p = 0.045.) ( Fig. 3A), but again intramuscular injection of rSeV-Aβ was ineffective (Aβ40 in TBS, p = 0.3; 2% SDS, p = 0.45; formic acid, p = 0.41. Aβ42 in TBS, p = 0.15; 2% SDS, p = 0.27; formic acid, p = 0.48) ( Fig. 3B). The trimeric, tetrameric, nonameric and dodecameric (Aβ*56) Aβ oligomers in soluble fraction of Tg2576 mice were detected by using Western blotting. Nasal vaccination with rSeV-Aβ in Tg2576 mice resulted in a marked reduction in the contents of Aβ*56 (dodecamer) but not in soluble sAPPα (Fig. 3C).

Patients appeared to focus on what was familiar to them, that is,

Patients appeared to focus on what was familiar to them, that is, the personal attributes of those they interacted with and the subsequent interactions that occurred and not the content or outcomes of physiotherapy rehabilitation. Patients seemed to associate physiotherapy with two main factors: personal attributes of their physiotherapists, and interaction with staff and other patients during physiotherapy. When questioned

about the amount of therapy they received (including Saturday therapy), patients’ responses were linked to their feeling towards the personal attributes of their physiotherapists. Therefore personal interactions with therapists and other patients was our main theme and all sub-themes related back to personal interactions in some way (see Box 1). Personal interactions Empathetic and caring physiotherapists • Encouraging and motivational Socialisation with other patients • Motivational selleckchem Alleviated boredom PCI32765 • Friendly physiotherapists and patients Changed perceptions of weekends in rehabilitation • An extension of weekdays in rehabilitation Contentment with amount of therapy • Therapist knows best Patients valued empathic and caring physiotherapists. Patients expressed positive attitudes towards their physiotherapists. They reported that their physiotherapists were friendly, knowledgeable, and compassionate: So kind and professional, and caring, and

they definitely know what they’re doing. (P18) Patients also said their physiotherapists were a source of motivation: Their morale and their energy towards patients is fantastic … They really are on your side and they really do want you to get better and, you know, power on! (P17) and described having therapy with them as a positive experience: When I came back I always felt much better. And that’s why I always looked forward to each session – I really did! (P9) Socialisation with other patients during therapy was motivational. Patients said that they welcomed the social component of their physiotherapy rehabilitation. They talked about sharing the rehabilitation experience

with other patients in the gym environment, and felt that it made the whole experience more Sitaxentan enjoyable: You make friends very quickly in the gym. (P17) Patients reported that they valued the encouragement that other patients provided during therapy: We encourage each other, and pat each other on the back. (P17) Socialising with and receiving encouragement from the other patients was perceived to create a motivational atmosphere in the gym: You might think ‘Oh, I’d rather have a little doze’ (laughs) but then you get down amongst everything and you come to life’. (P18) Physiotherapy alleviated boredom. Patients commented that they found being in rehabilitation a bit boring (P14) and that the interactions that occurred during physiotherapy helped to alleviate the boredom: It’s lovely. They’re all friendly, they all want to talk, which passes the time.

5 kg) vs normal birth weight (as a binary variable), small

5 kg) vs. normal birth weight (as a binary variable), small CB-839 chemical structure for gestational age vs. appropriate for gestational age (as a binary variable), rate of infant growth from birth to three months of age, infant weight at 12 months of age and season of birth (harvest/wet season January–June; hungry/dry season July–December). Rate of change in weight from birth to three months was calculated as the difference between sex-specific birth weight standard deviation score and sex-specific weight at three months standard deviation score. We also looked at weight for age standard

deviation differences between three and six months of age and six and 12 months of age. Associations between these early-life exposures and antibody responses were tested by multiple linear regression analysis. Probability values <0.05 were considered to be statistically significant for all tests. All statistical

analyses were performed using DataDesk, version 6 for Windows, Data Description Inc., Ithaca, NY. A total of 858 individuals met the criteria for recruitment into the current study. Of these, 78 were known to have died prior to follow up, leaving a cohort of 781 to be traced. Of this number, 145 were excluded on the basis they were currently participating in another ongoing study and three because they were confirmed to be pregnant by an MRC midwife prior to the start of the study. Of the remaining 633 individuals who were eligible to participate, 241 were not available [dead (4), self-confirmed as pregnant (45), p38 MAPK inhibitor overseas (24), outside designated study area (58), not traceable (50), traceable but unavailable for study (60)] and 72 did not consent to participate. A total of 320 subjects nearly (41% of 781 followed up) consented and participated in the current study. Compared to non-participants, participants were younger (22.2 y vs. 23.0 y; p < 0.0001) and there were significantly more males than females (51.9% vs. 45.3%). No differences were observed between the participants and

non-participants in available early-life information (data not presented). Table 1 details the early-life characteristics of the subjects recruited. A total of 41 (12.8%) of subjects were born of a low birth weight (<2.5 kg), and a higher proportion of these were female. Of these, 13 were born pre-term (<37 weeks gestation), although 9 had a missing gestational age. A total of 267 (83%) of the cohort had gestational age assessments available. Using the William’s reference data [15], 51 (19%) of these infants would be considered small for gestational age (SGA). Male subjects were significantly heavier at three months and at 12 months of age, but the rate of early growth, expressed as the sex-specific change in z-score between birth and three months of age, three to six months, or six to twelve months did not differ between males and females. Characteristics of the study participants at follow up are detailed in Table 2.

6 A new series of benzooxazoles have been designed and synthesise

Chemicals selleck and solvents were reagent grade and used without further purification. The 1H NMR spectra were recorded in the indicated solvent on a Varian 400 MHz spectrometer

with TMS as internal standard. All chemical shifts (δ) were reported in ppm from internal TMS. Mass spectra were measured on a Jeol JMS D-300 spectrometer. Infrared spectra were recorded in KBr on Brucher-IFS-66 FTIR spectrophotometer. The homogeneity of the compounds C59 wnt mw was checked using precoated TLC plates (E.Merk Kieselgel 60 F254). 2-Iodoaniline (1) (0.1 mmol), oxthiocyanate (0.15 mmol) and a few drops of DMF and FeCl3 were irradiated under microwave for 2–3 min. After the completion of reaction, it was poured

onto ice and product was extracted from ethyl acetate. IR (cm−1) 3468, 1627; 1H NMR δ = 7.13–7.19 (m, 2H), 7.32 (t, 1H), 7.41 (t, 2H), 7.50 (d, 2H), 7.56 (d, 1H), 7.63 (d, 1H). 1H NMR δ = 3.74 (s, 3H), 6.85 (d, 2H), 6.98 (t, 1H), 7.42 (t, 1H), 7.42–7.12 (m, 3H), 7.42 (d, 1H). 1H NMR δ = 7.14–7.11 (m, 3H), 7.42 (t, 1H), 7.42 (d, 1H), 7.64–7.85 (m, 3H), 10.41 (br, 1H). 1H NMR δ = 7.19 (t, 1H), 7.24 (d, 1H), 7.74 (d, Resminostat 2H), 7.62 (d, 1H), 7.85 (d, 2H). 1H NMR δ = 7.42–7.20

(m, 2H), 7.15 (t, 1H), 7.24 (t, 2H), 7.85 (d, 2H), 7.66 (d, 1H), 7.64 (d, 1H). 1H NMR δ = 3.84 (s, 3H), 6.87 (d, 2H), 7.10 (t, 1H), 7.54 (t, 1H), 7.22–7.44 (m, 3H), 7.62 (d, 1H). 1H NMR δ = 7.14–7.77 (m, 3H), 7.24 (t, 1H), 7.22 (d, 1H), 7.15–7.21 (m, 3H), 10.14 (brs, 1H). 1H NMR δ = 7.12 (t, 1H), 7.41 (d, 1H), 7.74 (d, 2H), 7.52 (d, 1H), 7.42 (d, 2H). 1H NMR δ = 7.13–7.19 (m, 2H), 7.32 (t, 1H), 7.41 (t, 2H), 7.50 (d, 2H), 7.56 (d, 1H), 7.63 (d, 1H). 1H NMR δ = 3.84 (s, 3H), 6.96 (d, 2H), 7.09 (t, 1H), 7.27 (t, 1H), 7.38–7.44 (m, 3H), 7.57 (d, 1H). 1H NMR δ = 7.11–7.14 (m, 3H), 7.54 (t, 1H), 7.24 (d, 1H), 7.24–7.44 (m, 3H), 10.40 (br, 1H). 1H NMR δ = 7.11 (t, 1H), 7.21 (d, 1H), 7.22 (d, 2H), 7.41 (d, 1H), 7.65 (d, 2H). 1H NMR δ = 7.13–7.19 (m, 2H), 7.32 (t, 1H), 7.41 (t, 2H), 7.50 (d, 2H), 7.56 (d, 1H), 7.63 (d, 1H). 1H NMR δ = 3.82 (s, 3H), 6.89 (d, 2H), 7.11 (t, 1H), 7.42 (t, 1H), 7.41–7.41 (m, 3H), 7.14 (d, 1H). 1H NMR δ = 7.41–7.14 (m, 3H), 7.54 (t, 1H), 7.34 (d, 1H), 7.24–7.42 (m, 3H), 10.24 (br, 1H).

Blister packs/tubing were placed on the shelf and a 4 h thermal t

Blister packs/tubing were placed on the shelf and a 4 h thermal treatment step was carried out at −28 °C. This temperature was maintained for a further 2 h while the chamber pressure was reduced to 100 mTorr. Primary drying commenced with a 4 h Pazopanib hold under these conditions followed by a 1 h ramp to and 2 h hold at −20 °C. The temperature was further ramped to 0 °C over 2 h then held for 2 h at 500 mTorr followed by a 2 h ramp to 20 °C.

Secondary drying was then performed at 27 °C for 4 h at a reduced pressure of 50 mTorr. Following lyophilization samples were transferred into individual sterile universal tubes. Each lyophilized solid dosage tablet formulation tested (n = 5) was weighed and transferred into the test drum of a Copley

Scientific friability tester (25 rpm, 4 min), during which they are subjected to the rolling movement around the drum which has a curved aperture allowing the formulations to rise and then fall over a distance of ∼16 cm. The dosage forms were then expelled, reweighed and any decrease in weight recorded. SVF was prepared as previously described [17]. NaCl (3.51 g), KOH (1.40 g), Ca(OH)2 (0.222 g), bovine serum albumin (BSA) (0.018 g), lactic acid (2 g), acetic acid (1 g), glycerol (0.16 g), urea (0.4 g) and glucose (5 g) were dissolved in 1 L of deionised water, followed by adjustment to pH 4.2 with HCl. Solid dosage tablet formulations were diluted and thoroughly mixed with a defined volume of SVF (1 ml) and the dynamic rheological properties this website analyzed. Oscillatory rheometry was conducted within the linear viscoelastic region over a frequency range from 0.1 to 10 Hz as described elsewhere [12]. The dilution ratio Phosphoprotein phosphatase was chosen on the basis of that normally encountered in the vagina following insertion of the delivery vehicle [17]. A heterogeneous indirect

sandwich ELISA was optimised for quantification of CN54gp140 in PBST (linear concentration range 0.003–0.05 μg/ml, R2 > 0.999). Wells were incubated with 50 μl/well of GNA at 10 μg/ml in deionised water (5 h at 37 °C). The wells were washed (5× 300 μl PBS-T) and blocked for 1 h at 37 °C with PBST containing 5% porcine serum (PBS-T-serum). Standards, samples and controls were prepared in PBS-T (n = 4), and incubated overnight at ambient temperature. The wells were washed and incubated with 50 μl/well HuMab 5F3 (1 μg/ml in PBS-T-serum) for 2 h at 37 °C. Following washing, bound antibody was detected using 50 μl/well goat anti-human IgG peroxidase conjugate diluted 1:5 K in PBS-T-serum and incubated for 1 h at 37 °C. After washing, the wells were incubated with 100 μl TMB/E for 5 min. The reaction was terminated by the addition of 50 μl of 2.5 M H2SO4. Plates were read immediately at A450.

The research was undertaken, in part, thanks to funding from the

The research was undertaken, in part, thanks to funding from the Canada Research Chairs program (support for Dr. Brisson). We thank Rebecca Tremblay for statistical support and Dr. Myron Levin for valuable comments on the interpretation of results and on the manuscript. Finally, we would like to thank POLYMOD and Dr. W. John Edmunds for providing us with social mixing data.

selleck chemicals
“Informed consumers are in a better position to make decisions about their health and well-being. Appropriate preventative health behaviours are dependent on one’s understanding of the behaviour [1]. Unfortunately, in the case of HPV vaccination, decisions are often made without adequate information [2]. Various studies have documented low HPV knowledge levels of both girls and adults across different populations [3], [4], [5] and [6]; even women diagnosed with HPV have low levels of comprehension [7] and [8]. However, most of these studies were conducted before the HPV vaccine was widely advertised and available. One study, conducted after publicity about the vaccine

by manufacturers in the US, showed that awareness had increased, but knowledge and understanding had not improved [9]. Prophylactic vaccination against HPV types 16, 18, 6, 11 (GARDASIL®) is now funded by the Australian government for Australian girls through school-based delivery. Since school-based vaccination is the method most likely to reach the highest percentage of adolescents [10], it is gaining popularity. Indeed, in the Australian HPV school program to date, rates of around 75% have been documented [11]. However, www.selleckchem.com/HIF.html there are no published studies that fully these explore and examine knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccine

post-implementation of mass HPV vaccination in schools. It is important to document vaccine recipients’ knowledge of HPV-related information as it may impact upon girls’ future health behaviours. Knowledge about the implications of vaccination may influence adolescents’ sexual behaviour, use of protective measures against other STIs, and future attendance at cervical screening. There is also an ethical responsibility to ensure that individuals are making a decision about vaccination with adequate understanding. Australia’s National HPV Vaccination Program was implemented rapidly following its announcement on 29 November 2006, with commencement of school-based vaccination in April 2007. This created logistical challenges, including development of educational resources. Vaccine manufacturer materials were utilized by health professionals until other materials became available [12]. The Australian Department of Health and Ageing developed a communication strategy and materials for the national program, including a (now defunct) website with downloadable information brochures for parents, young women and health professionals.

These range from procurement of raw materials for the emulsion, s

These range from procurement of raw materials for the emulsion, selection of the appropriate manufacturing equipment, and procedures for characterization and release of the adjuvant. A technology transfer initiative using a concept similar to the adjuvant hub model is the ‘Enabling Platform’ [7] used by PATH to facilitate the transfer

of rotavirus vaccine technology. In this type of upstream technology transfer, the production of reagents, quality control testing and formulation development (enabling technologies and tools) take place at different sites and serve multiple recipients. A key measurable outcome of the initiative is the increased capacity of the new manufacturers to contribute influenza vaccine to their country and to the developing world in general. This is being assessed by comparing the number selleck inhibitor of new doses of trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine produced at the WHO grantee manufacturing sites against the 2006 baseline production. A survey was conducted in July 2010 among all 11 developing country vaccine manufacturers receiving grants from

WHO. The questionnaire requested data on current seasonal influenza vaccine requirements and target groups in the country, as well as types of vaccine to be produced, including pandemic vaccine, production timeline, current production, maximum capacity, and forecasted capacity by 2015. All manufacturers responded

to the survey, the results GSK1120212 price of which are summarized below. Manufacturers in six countries (55%) reported that seasonal influenza vaccination was currently part of their national immunization programme. Two of the remaining five countries (18%) indicated the intent of their government to introduce influenza vaccination into the national immunization programme in the next five years. Three manufacturers (27%) reported having already produced and distributed seasonal influenza vaccine in their countries. The others indicated that they would commence commercial-scale vaccine production between 2010 and 2012. The total number of influenza vaccine doses produced for the 2010 seasonal epidemic was reported as 12 million, with more than next 215 million doses forecasted to be produced annually in 2015 (Table 3). Approximately half of these doses will be the inactivated formulation and the other half will be LAIV. Three manufacturers produced H1N1 pandemic vaccine in 2009 and 2010 for their country’s use, at an aggregate total of 33 million doses as at 31 December 2010. Finally, the survey results indicate that 9 of the 11 manufacturers (82%) will be able to meet the demand for seasonal influenza vaccine in their country by 2015 (two countries do not plan to introduce seasonal influenza in their vaccination programme by this date) (Fig. 1).