AO performed the immunohistochemical staining. CW gave technical assistance. GM designed the study, examined histological and immunohistochemical staining, and reviewed the manuscript. All the authors have read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) involves a spectrum of conditions ranging from simple fat accumulation in the liver to end stage liver failure and cirrhosis. NAFLD can lead into the development of non alcoholic steatohepatitis
(NASH) . NASH is an emerging health concern and it is believed that its prevalence is on the rise due to escalating obesity rates . Estimated NAFLD prevalence in Western countries is between 17-33% . NAFLD accounts for up to 20%, and NASH find more accounts for 2-3% of liver test abnormalities in most developed countries . NASH is typically reported in obese individuals suffering from one
or a combination of type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and CB-839 ic50 dyslipidaemia, but is not restricted to this group . There is often an increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) . Lipid accumulation occurs early in NASH as part of the development of the disease . The two hit disease model postulates that steatosis is a trigger for the establishment of NASH and the increased levels of fat infiltration cause damage to the liver by forming fat droplets within the hepatic tissue, thus setting off the second hit of
the disease by causing lipotoxicity. In addition, cytokines and learn more reactive oxygen species (ROS) create a pro-oxidant state that can activate stellate cells to produce fibrotic scar tissue . Liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP) accounts for 3-5% of the cytosolic protein content in hepatocytes. N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase LFABP is transcriptionaly regulated by the nuclear hormone receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated protein α (PPAR-α), and is responsible for intracellular trafficking of long chain fatty acids . Rat LFABP has recently been described as an endogenous antioxidant , and may be useful in states of extreme oxidative stress when intracellular antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione and catalase cannot quench excessive quantities of ROS. This antioxidant characteristic of LFABP is thought to result from the methionine groups located in the cavity of the LFABP binding site . NADPH oxidase (NOX), an enzyme complex responsible for generating superoxide, is activated in rat Kupffer cells in alcoholic liver disease, through induction of transcription factor NF-κβ and TNF-α production . However, administration of a methionine choline deficient (MCD) diet to p47 knockout mice, lacking a critical subunit of the NOX complex, showed that NOX is not an important contributor of oxidative stress generation. The p47 knockout mice on an MCD diet developed NASH with similar pathology as wild type, despite the lack of a functional NOX enzyme .