Biodivers Conserv (this issue) Wood EM (2001) Collection of coral

Biodivers Conserv (this issue) Wood EM (2001) Collection of coral reef fish for aquaria: global trade, conservation issues and management strategies. Marine Conservation Society, Ross-on-Wye, UK Zhang L, Ning H, Sun S (2008) Wildlife trade, consumption and conservation awareness in southwest China. Biodivers Conserv 17:1493–1516CrossRef Zhou Z, Jiang Z (2004) International trade status and crisis for snake species in China. Conserv Biol 18:1386–1394CrossRef”
“Introduction: biodiversity protection in Southeast Asia Over the past few years, there has been an increasingly

lively debate about local governance related to the environment in the countries of Southeast Asia, to counter deforestation and the unsustainable exploitation

of the region’s natural environment. Several factors have become important in triggering such debates. First, although the processes are as yet uneven and contested, many countries have experienced democratisation processes, which have given more opportunities to NGOs and communities at the grassroots level to voice Selleck GDC 0449 their concerns and their grievances (Asia Sentinel 2009). Second, in some countries attempts at political and administrative decentralisation have been undertaken aiming at greater autonomy and authority for local decision makers (von Benda-Beckmann and von Benda-Beckmann 2007) and at a replacement of “top down” with “bottom up” governance models. Bay 11-7085 Third, agricultural output, long taken for granted, is of renewed importance to national development planners after several countries experienced a food crisis and

worrying price rises in 2007 and early 2008 (Burnett 2009; Wheatley 2008). Fourth, climate change and its potentially devastating impact on developing countries have entered the agenda. Fifth and finally, from a legal perspective, a number of important international treaties linking trade and environmental issues were concluded during the 1990s (Tay and Esty 1996) and they are now entering the implementation stage or are under discussions for further amendments. In this article, I will examine some of these treaties and the environmental governance and biodiversity protection models they propose, whereby I will focus on the role of intellectual property concepts in promoting traditional knowledge about biodiversity. Several contributions in this volume have stressed the importance of alternative sustenance opportunities and of financial incentives for conservation endeavours to be successful (Sodhi et al. 2009; Wilcove and Koh 2010). One of the approaches to create such incentives has been the idea to combine some of the most advanced forms of intellectual property with some of the oldest forms of knowledge in attempts to implement the provisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity and of other treaties discussed below.

J Clin Oncol 2006, 24: 367s CrossRef 25 Suh JH, Stea B, Nabid :

J Clin Oncol 2006, 24: 367s.CrossRef 25. Suh JH, Stea B, Nabid : Phase III study of efaproxiral as an adjunct to whole-brain this website radiation therapy for brain metastases. J Clin Oncol 2006, 24: 106–114.CrossRefPubMed 26. Knisely JP, Berkey B, Chakravarti A: A phase III study of conventional radiation therapy plus thalidomide versus conventional radiation therapy for multiple brain metastases (RTOG 0118). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2008, 71: 79–86.CrossRefPubMed 27. Scott C, Suh J, Stea B, Nabid A, Hackman J: Improved survival, quality of life, and quality-adjusted

survival in breast cancer patients treated with efaproxiral (Efaproxyn) plus whole-brain radiation therapy for brain metastases. Am J Clin Oncol 2007, 6: 580–7.CrossRef 28. Kavanagh BD, Khandelwal SR, Schmidt- Ullrich RK: A phase I-BET151 I study of RSR13, a radiation-enhancing hemoglobin modifier: Tolerance of repeated intravenous doses and correlation of pharmacokinetics with pharmacodynamics. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2001, 49: 1133–1139.CrossRefPubMed

29. Kunert MP, Liard JF, Abraham DJ: RSR-13, an allosteric effector of hemoglobin, increases systemic and iliac vascular resistance in rats. Am J Physiol 1996, 271: H602–613.PubMed 30. Suh JH: Efaproxiral: A novel radiation sensitiser. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2004, 13: 543–550.CrossRefPubMed ZD1839 31. Carde P, Timmerman R, Mehta MP: Multicenter phase Ib/II trial of the radiation enhancer motexafin gadolinium in patients with brain metastases. J Clin Oncol 2001, 19: 2074–2083.PubMed 32. Presta M, Dell’ Era P, Mitola S: Fibroblast growth factor/fibroblast growth factor receptor system in angiogenesis. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 2005, 16: 159–178.CrossRefPubMed 33. Aigner A, Butscheid M, Kunkel P: An FGF-binding protein (FGF-BP) exerts its biological function by parallel paracrine stimulation of tumor cell and endothelial cell proliferation

through FGF-2 release. Int J Cancer 2001, 92: 510–517.CrossRefPubMed 34. Ansiaux R, Baudelet C, Jordan BF: Thalidomide radiosensitizes tumors through early changes in the tumor microenvironment. Clin Cancer Res 2005, 11 (2 pt 1) : 743–750.PubMed 35. Yung WKA, Seiferheld AZD9291 molecular weight W, Donahue B: A RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) Phase II study of conventional radiation therapy plus thalidomide followed by thalidomide post XRT for supratentorial glioblastoma. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 2001., 20: (abstract 206). 36. Melillo G: Targeting hypoxia cell signaling for cancer therapy. Cancer Metastasis Rev 2007, 26: 341–52.CrossRefPubMed 37. Brown JM, Wilson WR: Exploiting tumour hypoxia in cancer treatment. Nat Rev Cancer 2004, 4: 437–47.CrossRefPubMed 38. Overgaard J, Horsman MR: Modification of hypoxia-induced radioresistance in tumors by the use of oxygen and sensitizers. Semin Radiat Oncol 1996, 6: 10–21.CrossRefPubMed 39. Kaanders JH, Bussink J, Kogel AJ: ARCON: a novel biology-based approach in radiotherapy. Lancet Oncol 2002, 3: 728–37.CrossRefPubMed 40.


Surprisingly, MK0683 BLG production was not increased. These results partly confirmed what we published recently with LL-FnBPA+BLG in vitro and in vivo[32]. Oral administration in mice of LL-FnBPA+BLG or LL-FnBPA+GFP elicited a GFP or BLG production in enterocytes. As with LL-mInlA+ the BLG production was not increased with LL-FnBPA+. However the number of mice producing BLG was significantly higher after oral administration of LL-FnBPA+BLG compared to non invasive LL-BLG. Considering these results

it seems that LL-FnBPA+strain is a better DNA delivery vehicle than LL-mInLA+. As no significant advantages were observed by using LL-mInlA+BLG compared to LL-BLG, we hypothesize that interactions of recombinant mInlA with their receptors were impeded in mouse intestinal epithelium. This lack of invasion in vivo was also observed by another group working with E. coli strain expressing invasin from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as an oral vaccine for

cancer immunotherapy. They showed that invasive E. coli was unable to enter gut epithelial cells due to a basolateral localization of the receptor, B1-integrin [34]. They demonstrated that invasive E. coli expressing Y. pseudotuberculosis invasin were selectively uptaken from the intestinal lumen into Peyer’s patches MX69 mw using an ex vivo model. Similarly, E-cadherin, the mInlA receptor, is also expressed on the basolateral membrane of IECs which are strongly linked to each other in the gut making E-cadherin less available. It has been shown recently that L. monocytogenes could enter the epithelial membrane through extruding epithelial cells at the top of the villi but mainly

through goblet cells which are located deeper in the crypt [35]. It is thus possible that LL-mInlA+BLG strain is not able to reach its receptor deeply buried in the crypt. The pathway whereby bacteria could penetrate gut epithelial monolayers could be through Microfold (M) cells in Peyer’s patches. These cells are able to take up particles/bacteria from the lumen [36]. Nevertheless, we cannot exclude any possibility that lactococci can also interact with other cells from the epithelial membrane such as dendritic cells. Some subset of dendritic cells is now well selleck chemical known to produce dendrites, able to reach the lumen in order to sample its content [37]. The other hypothesis is that the plasmid would be released in the lumen by lysed lactococci and then captured by the enterocytes. It has been shown that lactococci do not persist in the gut and are very sensitive to its physico-chemical condition [38]. Most likely, plasmid transfer in vivo is a combination of both mechanisms, bacteria and released plasmid captures. Considering these data, the use of lactobacilli which persist longer in the gut than lactococci could be a better HDAC inhibitors cancer option for DNA delivery. Conclusions Mutated Internalin A protein was successfully expressed at the surface of L. lactis NZ9000, as demonstrated by FACS analysis.

e , albuminuria); stage III: ACR ≥ 300 mg/g creatinine and/or per

e., albuminuria); stage III: ACR ≥ 300 mg/g creatinine and/or persistent proteinuria with serum concentration of creatinine <2 mg/dl; stage IV: serum concentration of

creatinine ≥2 mg/dl with proteinuria; and stage V: being treated with dialysis. The Japan Diabetes Clinical Data Management Study Group (JDDM) reported that the prevalence of albuminuria (stage II) in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients was 32%, which is very similar to the 39% observed in the DEMAND study [12]. These results suggest that albuminuria is common, and that 76% of patients with diabetic nephropathy are categorized as stage II, as evidenced by the presence of albuminuria. Further, 58% of the patients enrolled were at stage I, 7% were at stage III, 2.6% were at stage IV, and 0.4% were at stage V [11]. A very recent study from the Japan Diabetes Complications Study (JDCS) revealed that the annual transition SCH772984 in vivo rate to proteinuria (ACR ≥ 300 mg/g creatinine) was 0.67%, and that this was substantially higher for the low-albuminuric group (defined as a urinary

ACR of 30–150 mg/g creatinine) than for the normoalbuminuric group (defined as a Epacadostat manufacturer urinary ACR of <30 mg/g creatinine) [13]. In this sense, UKPDS 64 reported that the progression to albuminuria occurred at 2.0% per year, and from albuminuria to macroalbuminuria at 2.8% per year [14]. However, about 40% of the diabetic patients had no urinary albumin excretion measurements, regardless of the recommendation for GDC-0994 mouse the JDDM cohort [11]. Therefore, the measurement of urinary albumin excretion is required for the early detection of diabetic nephropathy in Japan. Biomarkers for diabetic nephropathy and disease progression Further studies to detect diabetic nephropathy more specifically at the early stage in addition to urinary albumin excretion are needed. In this sense, biomarker studies to identify the presence and predict the progression of diabetic nephropathy MycoClean Mycoplasma Removal Kit have been performed worldwide [15]. Recently, Kamijo-Ikemori et al. [16]

reported that urinary levels of liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) accurately reflected the severity of diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes. Importantly, urinary L-FABP levels were high in patients with normoalbuminuria, suggesting its usefulness for detecting early nephropathy in these patients. Further, an increase in urinary Smad1—a key transcriptional factor for mesangial matrix expansion in diabetic nephropathy—at the early stage was correlated with subsequent development of glomerulosclerosis in experimental rodent models [17]. Regarding renal function, serum cystatin C was reported to be a good marker for nephropathy [18]. Notably, cases of early renal dysfunction, defined by a loss of cystatin C GFR exceeding −3.3%/year, occurred in 9% of the normoalbuminuria group and 31% of the albuminuria group [19].

Int: J Food Eng; 2012 51 Chin NL, Chan SM, Yusof YA, Chuah TG,

Int: J Food Eng; 2012. 51. Chin NL, Chan SM, Yusof YA, Chuah TG, Talib RA: Modelling of rheological behaviour of pummelo juice concentrates using master-curve. J Food Eng 2009, 93:134–140.CrossRef Selleck BKM120 52. Larson RG: The Structure and Rheology of Complex Fluids. New York: Oxford University Press; 1999. 53. Timofeeva EV, Routbort JL, Singh D: Particle shape effects on LEE011 manufacturer thermophysical properties of alumina nanofluids. J App Phys 2009, 106:014304.CrossRef 54. Abdelhalim MAK, Mady MM, Ghannam MM: Rheological and dielectric

properties of different gold nanoparticle sizes. Lipids Health Dis 2011, 10:208.CrossRef 55. Pham KN, Petekidis G, Vlassopoulos D, Egelhaaf SU, Pusey PN, Poon WCK: Yielding of colloidal glasses. Europhys Lett 2006, 75:624–630.CrossRef 56. Tanaka H, Meunier J, Bonn D: Nonergodic states

of charged colloidal suspensions: repulsive and attractive glasses and gels. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin 2004, 69:031404.CrossRef 57. Cox WP, Merz EH: Correlation of dynamic and steady-flow viscosities. J Polym Sci 1958, 28:619–622.CrossRef 58. Haleem BA, Nott SN-38 cell line PR: Rheology of particle-loaded semi-dilute polymer solutions. J Rheol 2009, 53:383–400.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions DC performed the nanofluid sample characterization and experimental measurements and participated in the redaction and the critical evaluation of experimental results. MJPG contributed with the selection of the optimal Progesterone experimental setting and type of tests to be performed.

CGF participated in the critical evaluation of experimental and theoretical results. MMP analyzed the data and participated in the structuring of the work. LL conceived the study, developed its design, and coordinated the redaction of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background It was known that working frequency is moving to the gigahertz band region for applications such as magnetic recording heads, wireless inductor cores, and microwave noise filters [1]. It requires the development of a soft magnetic film with high resonance frequency and high permeability [2, 3]. In order to solve the expanded electromagnetic interference problems, many researchers begin to focus on the enhancement of microwave absorption [4]. Magnetic thin film application is based on the analysis of the dynamic magnetic or magnetization process, which is subjected to an effective magnetic anisotropy field H eff as given by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation [5] and resonance frequency f r[6] (1) (2) where M s represents saturation magnetization, H eff is the anisotropy effective field, γ is the gyromagnetic factor, and α is the damping constant. From Equations 1 and 2, it can be seen that magnetic anisotropy and saturation magnetization are the two key material parameters which determine the magnetic properties of the magnetic film.

Majority (51 0%) of the tetanus patients in this study were farme

Majority (51.0%) of the tetanus patients in this study were farmers which is in agreement with other studies [6, 8]. This observation is in contrast to a Nigerian study which reported students and civil servants as the majority of cases [16]. This pattern of occupational risk group in our study can be Vorinostat explained by the fact that farmers or the peoples who live in the rural areas and engage themselves in the agricultural sector are more likely to be exposed to the causal check details organism as well as the injury necessary for the organism to enter the body. In agreement

with other studies [8, 9, 16, 17], the most common portal of entry in this study was injuries in the lower limbs. This is in contrast to Joshi et al [12] who reported upper limbs as the most common portal of entry. This lower limb preponderance in this study could be explained by the fact that C. tetani exists in soil; hence, any lower limb injury would be open to contamination and infection by this organism, bearing in mind too that most tetanus patients were rural farming folks. Also, the preponderance of lower limbs in our study is thought to result from poor protective footwear. The portals of entry were not identified in 33.6% of cases reflecting that the injuries were likely to be trivial to be recalled. Trivial wounds on the lower limbs as possible

portals of entry for tetanus infection are common because most people in the rural areas do not wear shoes. Body stiffness/spasm, trismus and dysphagia, selleck compound in that order, were the commonest complaints of the tetanus patients in our series which is in agreement with other studies [8, 9, 11, 14]. Hence, a high index of suspicion for tetanus is of paramount whenever patients present with any of these symptoms as tetanus is essentially a clinical diagnosis and laboratory results as well as cultures are of little diagnostic value [5]. If a patient presents with

all the three complaints, the probability of tetanus would be extremely high. The treatment of tetanus patients requires a well established intensive care facility with a medical and nursing staff experienced in treating artificially ventilated and haemodynamically unstable patients. The majority NADPH-cytochrome-c2 reductase (82.4%) of study patients required ICU management an observation which is also reported in other studies [9, 11]. However, ICU admission in this study did not significantly improve the prognosis of these patients in terms of mortality. This may be attributed to low levels of tracheostomy and mechanical ventilation which were performed in only 15.7% and 31.4% of cases respectively. In this study, tracheostomy to circumvent the problem of laryngeal spasm (which could lead to asphyxiation and hypoxia) and to enable tracheal suction and toilet to be carried out efficiently (airway protection) was performed in only 15.7% of patients which is similar to what was reported by Feroz and Rahman in Bangladesh [8].


[38]. FDA approved Drug Library ic50 Genomic DNA from Lb. paraplantarum LTH5200, Lb. pentosus DSM20314T and Lb. plantarum DSM20174T were used as positive control and genomic DNA from Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides L8 and Lb. ghanensis L499 were used as negative control. Differentiation of Weissella confusa and W. cibaria strains The closely related species W. confusa and W. cibaria were differentiated from each other by a W. confusa species-specific PCR method as described by Fusco et al. [39]. Genomic DNA from W. confusa LMG 11983T was used as positive control. Genomic DNA from the following species was used as negative control; W. cibaria 17699T, Pediococcus acidilactici

DSM20284T, Ped. pentosaceus DSM20336T, Lb. fermentum DSM20052T, Lb. pentosus DSM20314T, Lb. paraplantarum LTH5200, Lb. delbrueckii subsp. lactis DSM20073, and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus DSM20080. Safety characterizations Antibiotics MIC testing by the broth microdilution method Nine antibiotics were included in the assay: ampicillin and vancomycin as inhibitors of cell wall synthesis, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin and tetracycline as inhibitors of protein synthesis. All antibiotics

were obtained from Sigma (St. Louis, Mo., USA) in powdered form and 2 g/L stock solutions prepared. BMS345541 Chloramphenicol and erythromycin stock solutions were prepared in 95% ethanol and the remaining antibiotics stock solutions prepared in SU5402 cost sterile MilliQ water and filter sterilized (MILLEX GP Syringe Driven Filter Unit, 0.22 μm, Millipore, Ireland). Aliquots (1 ml) of the stock solutions were stored at −20°C. The minimum inhibitory concentration of antibiotics (MICs, mg/L) for all bacteria (except Lb. ghanensis L489 and Lb. delbrueckii ZN9a-7) was determined by a modification of the broth micro-dilution method reported by Mayrhofer et al. [40] and Domig et al. [41] with different antibiotics concentration ranges depending on the particular antibiotic. In summary of the method, antibiotics stock

solution (2.0 g/L) was added to MRS broth (pH 6.2) and then followed by log2 serial dilutions to obtain the appropriate antibiotics concentrations. The media (198 μl) with the appropriate antibiotic concentration was then dispensed into wells of sterile commercial flat-bottom microtitre Astemizole plates with lids (Fisher Scientific, Biotech Line A/S, Denmark) and stored at −20°C for overnight. Prior to inoculation, the plates were allowed to attain room temperature. Inocula were prepared by suspending single isolated colonies of bacteria (MRS-agar, 37°C, 48 hrs) in 3 ml sterile 0.9% NaCl. Turbidity of the cells suspension was adjusted to 1 McFarland standard equivalent (approx. 3x108cfu/ml). The plates were inoculated with 2 μl of the cell suspension to obtain approximately 3×106 cfu/ml in each well. Plates were incubated under anaerobic conditions at 37°C for 24 hrs (COY Laboratory Products INC, USA).

The results obtained here suggest that AZA and EIL are probably i

The results obtained here suggest that AZA and EIL are probably interfering with sterol biosynthesis in Candida spp., as previously described for C. albicans [20], P. carinii [13], T. cruzi [3], and L. amazonensis [12]. On the other hand, we cannot exclude the possibility KU-57788 in vitro that these compounds may be acting in other pathways, inducing some secondary effects that could be related to the accumulation of other lipids or, as demonstrated in Crithidia deanei, that AZA can interfere

with phospholipid biosynthesis [38]. Further studies are necessary to characterise the correlation between the depletion of ergosterol and the cell cycle in C. albicans. Conclusion The results presented herein demonstrate the potential usefulness of buy AZD9291 the 24-SMT inhibitors AZA and EIL as antifungal agents, MLN2238 research buy including azole-resistant Candida strains. The specific in vitro and in vivo antifungal and antiprotozoal activity of azasterols has been known for years, and in most cases has been linked to their specific inhibition of 24-SMT, an enzyme absent in mammals [10–14, 39]. However, other studies have found that these compounds are also active against parasitic protozoa that lack endogenous sterol biosynthesis, such as T. gondii [23, 40] and Trypanosoma brucei [41], indicating that they may have

other biochemical targets. Taken together, these results indicate azasterols as useful leads for novel antifungal agents, but optimisation of their selectivity, ADME, PK, and toxicological properties is required for their further advancement as drug candidates. Methods Microorganisms Antifungal PLEK2 assays were performed against 70 yeasts

of the genus Candida. Five standard strains from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC): Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Candida krusei ATCC 6258, Candida glabrata ATCC 2001, Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019, and Candida tropicalis ATCC 13803; and 65 clinical isolates: Candida albicans (21), Candida parapsilosis (19), Candida tropicalis (14), Candida guilliermondii (3), Candida glabrata (2), Candida krusei (1), Candida lusitaneae (1),Candida zeylanoides (1), Candida rugosa (1),Candida dubliniensis (1), and Candida lipolytica (1) were used. The clinical isolates came from bloodstream (35%), urine (26%), and other clinical material (39%), and were isolated from 2002 to 2006 at the Microbiology/Mycology Laboratory of Hemorio, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Species identification was performed by micromorphology analysis and Vitek Systems (Biomerieux Inc., France). The isolates were maintained in Sabouraud dextrose agar plates at 4°C, and subcultures were used in each experiment.

Colicins A, D, E3, E5, E6, E8, E9, 10 and microcin B17 were not d

Colicins A, D, E3, E5, E6, E8, E9, 10 and microcin B17 were not detected in either group. In addition to these, colicins E4, S4, U, 5 and microcin L were not detected in the UTI strains. Among the UTI strains, there was a marked increase in the number of strains producing Wnt pathway colicin E1 compared to controls (22.1% to 10.2%, respectively, p = 0.0008). This increased incidence of colicin E1 encoding determinants was not associated with mono-producers or with double producers. However, in triple producers

and multi-producers, this association was very strong compared to control strains (14.4% and 4.0% respectively, p = 0.0002). Microcin H47 encoding determinants

this website were found more often among UTI strains compared to Selleck LCZ696 controls (37.9% and 27.0% respectively, p = 0.02). Majority of the microcin H47 encoding strains were mono-producers with higher incidence among UTI strains compared to controls (30.8% and 20.8% respectively, p = 0.02). E. coli phylogroups and colicin production All investigated strains were phylogenetically analyzed using triplex PCR [27]. There was a marked increase of the B2 genotype in the UTI group compared to controls (59.0% and 42.1%, respectively; p < 0.0001), and a decreased incidence of the A genotype (19.4% and 31.1%, respectively; p = 0.0002). Additionally, a higher incidence of the B2 phylogroup was found in the UTI strains of male origin (74.1%, data Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase not shown) compared with UTI strains of female origin (54.4%, p = 0.001). Distribution of producer and non-producer strains among E. coli genotypes is shown in Table 3. In the E. coli phylogroup B1, the incidence of bacteriocin producing strains was significantly lower among UTI strains when compared to controls. Table 3 Incidence of bacteriocin producing and non-producing strains among UTI and control strains in E. coli phylogroups. E. coli phylogroup A   UTI (n = 128) Control (n = 70) statistical significance between UTI and control* Producers

79 (61.7%) 37 (52.9%) -** Non-producers 49 (38.3%) 33 (47.1%)   E. coli phylogroup B1   UTI (n = 25) Control (n = 11) statistical significance between UTI and control* Producers 7 (28%) 7 (63.6%) p = 0.04 Non-producers 18 (72%) 4 (36.4%)   E. coli phylogroup B2   UTI (n = 173) Control (n = 213) statistical significance between UTI and control* Producers 86 (49.7%) 110 (51.6%) -** Non-producers 87 (50.3%) 103 (48.4%)   E. coli phylogroup D   UTI (n = 85) Control (n = 67) statistical significance between UTI and control* Producers 54 (63.5%) 41 (61.2%) -** Non-producers 31 (36.5%) 26 (38.8%)   *statistical methods derived from the binomial distribution were used (see Methods, χ2 = 3.41, p = 0.

CrossRef 2 Han N, Wang F, Hou JJ, Yip SP, Lin H, Xiu F, Fang M,

CrossRef 2. Han N, Wang F, Hou JJ, Yip SP, Lin H, Xiu F, Fang M, Yang Z, Shi X, Dong G, Hung TF, Ho JC: Tunable electronic transport properties of metal-cluster-decorated III-V nanowire transistors. Adv Mater 2013, 25:4445–4451.CrossRef 3. Johansson J, Karlsson LS, Svensson CP, Martensson T, Wacaser BA, Deppert K, Samuelson L, Seifert W: Structural #Thiazovivin randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# properties of <111> B-oriented III-V nanowires. Nat

Mater 2006, 5:574–580.CrossRef 4. Caroff P, Dick KA, Johansson J, Messing ME, Deppert K, Samuelson L: Controlled polytypic and twin-plane superlattices in III-V nanowires. Nat Nanotechnol 2009, 4:50–55.CrossRef 5. Han N, Hou JJ, Wang F, Yip S, Yen YT, Yang ZX, Dong G, Hung T, Chueh YL, Ho JC: GaAs nanowires: from manipulation of defect formation to controllable electronic

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L: Control of III–V nanowire crystal structure by growth parameter tuning. Semicond Sci Tech 2010, 25:024009.CrossRef 10. Glas F, Harmand JC, Patriarche G: Why does wurtzite BCKDHB form in nanowires of III-V zinc blende semiconductors? Phys Rev Lett 2007, 99:146101.CrossRef 11. Kitauchi Y, Kobayashi Y, Tomioka K, Hara S, Hiruma K, Fukui T, Motohisa J: Structural transition in indium phosphide nanowires. Nano Lett 2010, 10:1699–1703.CrossRef 12. Hou JJ, Han N, Wang F, Xiu F, Yip S, Hui AT, Hung T, Ho JC: Synthesis and characterizations of ternary InGaAs nanowires by a two-step growth method for high-performance electronic devices. ACS Nano 2012, 6:3624–3630.CrossRef 13. Han N, Wang F, Hui AT, Hou JJ, Shan GC, Fei X, Hung TF, Ho JC: Facile synthesis and growth mechanism of Ni-catalyzed GaAs nanowires on non-crystalline substrates. Nanotechnology 2011, 22:285607.CrossRef 14. Tian B, Xie P, Kempa TJ, Bell DC, Lieber CM: Single-crystalline kinked semiconductor nanowire superstructures. Nat Nanotechnol 2009, 4:824–829.CrossRef 15. Krishnamachari U, Borgstrom M, Ohlsson BJ, Panev N, Samuelson L, Seifert W, Larsson MW, Wallenberg LR: Defect-free InP nanowires grown in [001] direction on InP (001). Appl Phys Lett 2004, 85:2077.CrossRef 16. Wang X, Ding Y, Summers CJ, Wang ZL: Large-scale synthesis of six-nanometer-wide ZnO nanobelts. J Phys Chem B 2004, 108:8773–8777.CrossRef 17.