Passing tags are thereby energized allowing them to send their id

Passing tags are thereby energized allowing them to send their identifiers back to the reader.Since the communication between tags and reader use a shared wireless channel, when multiple tags reply simultaneously to a reader, a collision occurs. Therefore, to avoid it, an anti-collision protocol is necessary, and readers implement them. Framed-slotted Aloha (FSA) is one of the most widely used anti-collision protocol by passive RFID systems [1]. As in Slotted-Aloha, time is divided into periods called slots, but all slots are confined to a Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries super-structure called ��frame��. The reader starts an interrogation frame by sending a Query packet informing the tags about the frame length K (the number of slots that make a frame). At every frame, each unidentified tag Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries randomly selects a slot among the K slots to send its identifiers to the reader.

When more than a single tag select the same slot in the Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries frame, a collision occurs, and the reader is not able to recover the identifier of the tags involved in the collision. Variations of FSA are used for instance by ISO/IEC 18000-6C, ISO/IEC 18000-7 [2] and EPCGlobal Class 1 Gen 2 (EPC-C1G2) [3], used by most commercial passive and active RFID systems.Three different classes of scenarios of practical interest arise in RFID facilities, according to the way the tags behave in Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries the reading areas:Static scenario: a group of tags enters the reading area and remains there until all of them have been successfully identified. Other tags do not enter during that time. As an example, let us think about a conveyor belt controlled by a reader: as long as the reader detects collisions, the conveyor is stopped.

Once the reader GSK-3 does not detect tags contending, the conveyor belt runs again, allowing new tags to enter. The goal in the static scenario is usually to minimize the average identification time. A thorough evaluation of this case can be found in our previous paper [4].Flow scenario: tags are continuously entering and leaving the checking area, according to some scenario dynamics that defines the arrival process. For example, a conveyor belt continuously running with tags randomly scattered on it. In this case, some tags may leave the reader coverage area unidentified. Thus minimizing the average identification time (as in the prior case) should not be optimization goal��instead it is critical to minimize the probability of losing tags.

This case has been evaluated in [5] and [6].Mixed scenario: in this case a group of tags enter the checking area and stay there only for a certain time (sojourn time). No more groups enter the checking area until the previous one has left. For example, consider a moving truck with tags grouped in boxes, which are uniformly Regorafenib cost spaced. Like in the flow scenario some tags may leave the reader coverage area unidentified. This is the case addressed in this paper.

However, for a 100 ��S/cm solution the peak-t
In recent deca

However, for a 100 ��S/cm solution the peak-t
In recent decades, rapid advances in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) have enabled the development of a wide variety of microfluidic devices for chemical control, selleck chemical Pacritinib mixing and analysis. Typically, the devices are designed to perform specific function such as cell sorting and counting, sample injection, specific Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries mixing and so forth. As MEMS techniques have matured, the applications have been combined and implemented on a single chip, Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries resulting in the emergence of LoCs systems. In realizing such systems, micropumps play an essential role in transporting precise volumes of sample fluid through the various components of the micro chips.Micropumps can broadly be classified as either static, piezoelectric, or electromagnetic, depending upon their mode of actuation [1�C13].

Zhu et al. Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries [1] utilized a sol-gel method to fabricate thin piezoelectric films for the actuation of micro-cantilever arrays in hard disk devices. Meanwhile, Xu et al. [2] proposed a piezoelectric actuator based on a monolithic Pb(ZrTi)O3 layer for high-precision Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries positioning applications. Alternatively, electromagnetic actuators represent an ideal solution for many modern MEMS-based applications with their simple driving mode, low actuation frequencies, large displacements and planar structures. Liu et al. [4] developed an active MEMS-based fluid control system incorporating surface micromachined magnetic actuators, and showed that the actuators were capable of achieving a large deflection (100 ��m) under the application of a magnetic force with a magnetic flux density of 1.

76 kGauss at 2.5 A current input. Lagorce et al. [5] presented a micro actuator based on a polymer magnet, and demonstrated that a good agreement existed between its theoretical and experimental Entinostat response. However, the use of the device was limited with its maximum deflection of just 20 ��m as a pumping component for practical microfluidic systems. In 2005, Hickerson et al. [6] proposed a valveless impedance pump in which a net flow was induced by periodically pinching a flexible section asymmetrically from its ends. In their design, the optimized lengths of elastic and inelastic sections are 1.91 and 15.2 cm, respectively. Their experimental results showed the flow rates are sensitive to duty cycle and pinching frequency.

In their study, the pump was also simulated and showed the wave speed traveling on the tube did not necessarily have the EPZ-5676 DOT1L same velocity, nor must be in phase with the flow rate. The flow exiting the impedance pump is typically pulsatile and the net flow rate (?10.9~9.0 mL/min) has a non-linear relationship to the frequency of activation with characteristic peaks and flow reversals. The same authors also constructed a one-dimensional wave model which predicted many of the characteristics exhibited by the experiments of impedance pumping [7]. Yeo et al.

To overcome

To overcome Axitinib 319460-85-0 this, the use of robotic agents to perform further NDE has been suggested [7]. The integration of robotic NDE into SHM would enable the detection and monitoring of a wider variety of damage. Information then collected by the robotic agent needs to be communicated to the SHM system, so it can used utilized. Acoustic communication is then an ideal method to communicate information from an autonomous agent to a SHM system.As Optical Fibre Sensors (OFSs), FBGs offer several advantages Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries that make them of interest to sensing areas, especially SHM [8]. The most significant of these advantages include reduced size and weight, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and most significantly, the versatility of FBGs to detect different measurands.

For SHM, a FBG system can be used to detect Acoustic Emissions (AEs), actively generated AU signals, dynamic strain Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries (e.g., vibration), static strain (e.g., load monitoring), and corrosion, as well as a variety of other measurands. Optical fibre sensors, specifically FBGs, have been utilized extensively for the detection of acoustic signals [9]. FBGs have been investigated for use in SHM of both composite structures [10] and aluminium structures [11].2.?Theory2.1. SensorFBGs are well known passive devices utilized extensively Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries in optical fibre communications and sensing [12]. The periodic grating acts as a filter, reflecting a narrow wavelength range, centered about a peak wavelength. This wavelength, known as the Bragg wavelength (��B), is given by [12]:��B=2n��(1)where n is the average refractive index of the grating and �� is the grating period.

Any measurand that has the ability to affect either the refractive index or the grating period can be measured using an FBG as a sensor. Specifically, an FBG is sensitive to strain and temperature. The relative change in the Bragg wavelength (����B) as a function of Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries the applied strain (��), can then be expressed as [12]:����B=��B[��(1?n22[p12?��(p12+p11)])+��T(��+1ndndT)](2)where v is Poisons�� ratio, p12 and p11 are the strain optic coefficients.Typically, power detection is used to convert the shift in the Bragg wavelength to an intensity change [13]. Here, one side of the FBGs spectral reflectivity curve is used as a linear filter. A narrow band laser source, centered about the 3 dB point, is then intensity modulated as the applied signal shifts the filter response.

The modulation that occurs to the reflected signal also occurs to the transmitted signal [14]. When the change in the reflected optical power is positive, the change in transmitted optical power is negative, and vice versa. Since one signal AV-951 is positive, and the other Dovitinib mw is negative, the transmitted (Tx) and reflected (Rx) signals can be differentially amplified, giving increased signal strength.

The outline of the paper is as follow In Section 2, the DOA esti

The outline of the paper is as follow. In Section 2, the DOA estimation problem is nearly formulated. The new algorithm, called JSDOA, is proposed in Section 3. In section 4, the validity of the proposed algorithm is proved by a number of simulations. Finally, conclusions are presented in Section 5.2.?Problem Formulation2.1. DOA Estimation ProblemConsider a linear array consisting of M identical sensors and receiving signals from K narrowband signals s1(t), s2(t), , sK(t), which arrive at the array from directions 1, 2, K with respect to the line of array. The received signal ym(t) at the mth sensor can be written as:ym(t)=��k=1Ka(�ȡ�k)sk(t)+nm(t)(1)where Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries a(�ȡ�k)k=1K denote steering vectors, nm(t) (m = 1, 2 , M) stand for the additive noise.
Let y(t) = [y1(t), y2(t), , yM(t)]T, n(t) = [n1(t), , nM(t)], Equation (1) can be written as:y(t)=A(�ȡ�)s(t)+n(t)(2)where the manifold matrix A () consists of the steering Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries vectors a(�ȡ�k)k=1K:A(��)=[a(�ȡ�1),a(�ȡ�2),?,a(�ȡ�K)]Therefore, DOA estimation is to find K and k from T snapshots y(t)t=t1tT.2.2. Joint-Sparse Recovery for DOA Estimation ProblemBecause sources are sparse in space, DOA estimation with sensor arrays can be expressed as a joint-sparse recovery problem. Let ? denote the set of possible locations, ��nn=1N denotes a grid that covers ?. We assume that the grid is fine enough such that the true location parameters of the existing sources lie on the grid.
Let:x(t)=[x1(t), x2(t), ?,xN(t)]TThen the received signal ym(t) at the mth sensor can be written as:ym(t)=��n=1Na(��n)xn(t)+n(t)(3)where the nth element xn(t) of x(t) is nonzero only if ��n = k, k [1,2, , K] and Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries in that case xn(t) = sk(t):Let �� = [a(��1), a(��2), , a(��N)], (3) can be expressed as:y(t)=��x(t)+n(t)(4)when the number of snapshots is denoted as T, Equation (4) can be written as:Y=��X+N(5)where Y = [y(t1), y(t2), , y(tT)], X = [x(t1), x(t2), , x(tT)]. As we know, X is row-sparse and only K rows have nonzero elements, so DOA estimation can be obtained by a joint-sparse recovery problem, which is also called a multiple measurement vectors (MMV) problem. Using lp,q norm to express joint sparsity, the MMV problem can be converted to lp,q norm minimization:{min��X��p,qs.t.Y=��X+N(6)where Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries p and q are non-negative, and ��X��p,q is defined as:��X��p,q=��i=1M(��X(i,:)��p)q(7)Concretely, Eldar and Mishali [15] use p = 2, q = 1.
Chen and Huo [16] study for p = 1, q = 1. The above algorithms do not perform very well for ��X�� 2,1 and ��X�� 1,1 can��t Carfilzomib sufficiently reflect joint sparsity. Considering ��X�� 2,0 can reflect joint sparity sufficiently, we minimize ��X�� 2,0 norm to solve the MMV problem. However, ��X�� 2,0 norm minimization can hardly be solved directly. selleck compound Therefore, in this paper we approximate ��X�� 2,0 norm by an arctan function and estimate DOA by solving an approximate ��X�� 2,0 norm minimization problem.3.

The ozone generator was fed oxygen from a gas cylinder at a flow

The ozone generator was fed oxygen from a gas cylinder at a flow of 2 L/min at a pressure of 1.5 bar. The generator was set to its maximum output level, thenthereby resulting in a gas containing 1.5�C2.2% O3 and 97.8�C98.5% O2. The ozone concentration was measured before each experiment with an ozone Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries analyzer (UV-100; Eco Sensors, Fresno, CA, USA), using pre-dilution in order to be within the analytical range. The ozone-enriched oxygen stream was led through Teflon tubes, and injected at the bottom of the manure-filled vessel through a stainless steel solvent filter (A-230A; Upchurch Scientific, Oak Harbor, WA, USA, pore size 20 ��m) used as a diffuser for dispersion of the added gas. The O2/O3 mixture was added continuously at a constant rate, for the various experiments at 0.075�C0.18 L/min.
Depending on outlet ozone Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries concentration measured before each experiment, the addition rate was 2.5�C5.5 mg O3/min. The maximum ozone addition was 350 mg O3/L manure and 17,000 mg O2/L manure. To apply different ozone doses, the treatment time of the 2.5-L sample was varied between 10 and 160 min. The ozone was fully dissolved and consumed in the manure for all treatments. This was ensured through continuous measurement of the ozone level above the surface of the manure.Additionally, two control treatments were performed on another pig manure by adding N2 and O2. For the N2 treatment, pure nitrogen was added at 0.06 L/min for 80 min, and for the O2 treatment pure oxygen was added at 0.07 L/min.2.3.
Chemical AnalysesThe analyses performed on the non-ozonated manure samples were: pH, particle sizes, total dry matter, total chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile fatty acids, Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries total NH3/NH4+ concentration and total H2S/HS?/S2- concentration. Particle size range was analyzed using laser diffraction (Master Sizer 2000; Malvern Instruments Ltd, Worcestershire, UK). pH was measured using a pH electrode (InPro450IVP/PT100 SG; Mettler-Toledo, Zurich, Switzerland). Total dry matter was determined gravimetrically as the weight loss upon heating the sample to 105 ��C (APHA, 1992). The Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries total COD concentration was determined by performing destruction, color reaction, and spectrometric quantification using the Spectroquant Kit 114555 (Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany). The total NH3/NH4+ concentration were measured by performing color reaction and spectrometric quantification using the Spectroquant Kit 100683 (Merck KGaA).
The volatile fatty acids, including butanoic acid, were measured on
A conventional IMU is composed of three accelerometers and Brefeldin_A three gyroscopes mounted in a strap-down configuration. Accelerometers are sensors that measure acceleration and gyroscopes are sensors that measure the angular rate of rotation. Gyros are usually corrupted by various sources of errors best such as bias instability, noise, scale factor errors�� etc.

In the one-unit approach, the ith extracting vector wi can be ort

In the one-unit approach, the ith extracting vector wi can be orthogonal to the space spanned by the vector w1, w2, ��, wi-1, by Gram-Schmidt method, that is wi=wi-��j=1i-1(wjHwi)wj.In the symmetric algorithm the symmetric orthogonalization Wortmannin clinical trial procedure can be approximately finished by (WWH)?1/2W. Therefore, the one-unit and symmetric version of the proposed algorithm with spatial constraint are summarized in Algorithms 1 and 2 respectively. We refer them to as Alg 1 and Alg 2 in the later analysis for simplicity.Algorithm 1. The one-unit extracting algorithm with spatial constraint.
InitializationWhitened the observation data x to give Z = Vx;forP = 1, ��,lSet ��(0), ��1, ��2 and choose a random initial weight vector w(0) with unity normIterationAt the ith iteration for obtaining Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries Wp,Calculate ��w�� according to Equation (19) by utilizing Wp(i?1) respectivelywp(i)��wp(i-1)+��1?w��(wp(i-1))wp(i)��wp(i)-��j=1p-1wjHwp(i)wjwp(i)��wp(i)/��wp(i)����(i)����(i-1)-��2max(J2(wp(i)),0)TerminationThe Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries iteration is terminated when the relative change ��wp(i)-wp(i?1)�� is less than a specified tolerance.end forAlgorithm 2. The symmetric extracting algorithm with spatial constraint.InitializationWhitened the observation data x to give z = Vx;Set ��(0), ��1, ��2 and choose a random initial weight matrix W(0) = |w1(0), ��, wl(0)|with wl(0) having unity normIterationAt the ith iteration for obtaining W,forP = 1, ��, lCalculate w�� Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries according to Equation (19) by utilizing wp(i-1) respectivelywp(i)��wp(i-1)+��1?w��(wp(i-1))end forw(i)��(w(i)(w(i))H)-1/2w(i)��(i)����(i-1)-��2max(min(J2(wp(i))),0)p=1,?,lTerminationThe iteration is terminated when the relative change ��W(i) ? W(i?1)�� less than a specified tolerance.
Yet Alg1 and Alg2 require a user parameter which may affect the final results significantly. The selection of the threshold in the algorithm is of vital importance for extracting the desired signal successfully, which can Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries be found in Section 5 by simulation. Furthermore, the update step of the Lagrangian parameter in each iteration will GSK-3 increase the computational load of the algorithm. Therefore, it is important to develop user parameters free methods.4.2. A Novel MethodIf the number of source signals is N, there will be 2N local maxima of negentropy, each one of which corresponds to ��si(n).
The FastICA algorithm cannot theoretically obtain particular desired independent sources other than those having the maximum negentropy selleck products among the sources. Furthermore, as we know, the FastICA algorithm is a local optimization algorithm which may arbitrarily converge to different local maxima from time to time because the local convergence depends on a number of factors such as the initial weight vector and the learning rate. When one desires a specific solution, the FastICA algorithm is of little use, unless the ��interesting�� independent source lies in the neighborhood of the initialization.

In the first category standard and reflectorless total stations a

In the first category standard and reflectorless total stations are still extensively used to take profile measurements for design parameter verification and volume computations. More recently, specialized software applications have been made available that considerably automate field work and office calculations with a Compound C significant impact on operational efficiency and cost savings [8,9]. However, notwithstanding traditional surveying methods represent a flexible, precise and reliable solution to the problem they cannot provide a continuous representation of the tunnel surface. On the contrary, close range photogrammetry can provide image-based 3D models of a tunnel tube. Such models are produced using multiple images of an area suitably corrected for lens and perspective distortions [10].
For this purpose various processing techniques exist, ranging from stereoscopic vision of pair images to multi-convergent analysis supported by bundle adjustment. Nevertheless, although photogrammetric Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries techniques offer a universal and relatively low-cost alternative, their use is less common in tunnel works due to the uneven wall surface and poor lighting conditions [11]. Also, despite the rapid advances on software tools that facilitate data collection and the processing cycle, stereoscopic plotting still requires expertise operators [10].In recent Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries years, the emergence of laser scanning technology has opened new perspectives for the recording and 3D reconstruction of a tunnel’s wall at the various stages of a construction program.
Terrestrial Laser Scanners (TLS) use the reflection of a focused laser beam from objects to compute their location Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries in 3D space. High resolution Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries TLS can deliver millions of point locations with high (several millimeters to centimeter) accuracy in a short time and, in many cases, under rough field conditions. Their use in the underground space environment is suited to a wide spectrum of application areas, ranging from civil engineering [1,12], to cave modeling [13] and archaeological Entinostat documentation [10]. Section 3 provides a summary of current use of TLS in tunneling applications. From this review it is evident that despite the rapid expansion of TLS in tunneling operations, there still exists a lot of unexplored potential that, if adequately developed, would benefit greatly the tunneling industry. In effect, today, in spite of the many capabilities of TLS technology, the high cost of the equipment and the still developing algorithms for automatic data processing, along with the considerably long data acquisition times and complexity selleck chemicals llc of data management might impose some practical constraints in certain cases.

ed was raised against the N terminal domain, recognizing also mut

ed was raised against the N terminal domain, recognizing also mutated and expressed p53 proteins. p53 mutation analysis Genomic DNA was isolated using the QIAamp DNA Micro Kit according to the manufacturers instruction. Amplification of p53 exons 2 11 was performed using primers and protocols slightly modified from previous studies. PCR Imatinib Mesylate supplier was carried out in a 25 ul reaction mixture containing 1�� PCR Buf fer, 1. 5 2. 5 mM MgCl2, 12 ng ul gDNA, 0. 4 mM dNTP Mix, 0. 4 uM forward and reverse primers and 1. 25 U Taq DNA polymerase. The PCR was performed with the following conditions, 94 C for 4 min, 40 cycles con sisting of Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries 94 C for 30 sec, 53 65 C for 30 sec and 72 C for 30 sec, followed by 72 C for 7 min. PCR products were purified using the QIAquick PCR Purification Kit according to the manufac turers protocol.

Sequencing was performed using Big Dye Terminator v1. 1 Cycle Sequencing Kit according to the man ufacturers instruction. Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries The reactions were performed in 20 ul reaction mixture consisting of 3 5 ng PCR pro duct, 0. 16 uM forward or reverse primers, 20% BigDye Ready Reaction Mix and 1�� Big Dye Sequen cing Buffer. A positive control with a 20 ul reaction mixture containing 5% pGEM 3Zf double stranded DNA control Template, 5% 21 M13 Control Primer, 20% BigDye Ready Reaction Mix and 1�� Big Dye Sequencing Buffer was included. The PCR was performed with the following conditions, 96 C for 1 min, 24 cycles consisting of 96 C for 10 sec, 50 C for 5 sec and 60 C for 4 min. DNA was precipitated with ethanol containing 5 mM EDTA and 120 mM sodium acetate, dissolved in formamide and denatured for 5 min at 95 C.

Capillary electrophoresis was performed using the ABI PRISM 310 Genetic Analyzer. The Sequencing Analysis Software V 5. 2 was used to analyze the collected electropherogram traces and sequencing infor mation. The p53 sequence Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of the GenBank database with accession number NC 000017. 9|NC 000017, c7531642 7512445 was used as reference. Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries RNA isolation and cDNA synthesis Total RNA isolation was performed using the RNeasy Mini Kit according to the manufacturers instruction. For cDNA synthesis, a 9 ul reaction Batimastat mixture containing 200 ng total RNA, 1 ul yeast RNA and 2 ul Hexanucleotide Mix was incubated for 2 min at 70 C and 10 min at RT. A sec ond 11 ul reaction mixture containing 4 ul First Strand Buffer, 2 ul DTT, 1 ul dNTP Mix and 1 ul M MLV RT, was added and incubated for 1 h at 37 C.

The M MLV RT was inactivated for 5 min GSI-IX at 95 C. For reverse transcription of Universal Human Reference RNA, the calibrator of qRT PCR, 300 ng RNA was employed in an appropriate volume. HS 1 associated protein X 1, Hax 1, is a 35 kDa pro tein with two Bcl 2 homology domains that was identified in a yeast two hybrid screen where it was found to interact with HS 1, a Src kinase substrate. Hax 1 is ubiquitously expressed in most tissues and is reported to be localized in mitochondria as well as the endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear membrane. Mutations identified in the human

lysis of 3 million gene co expressions

lysis of 3 million gene co expressions inhibitor Rucaparib across 141 relevant microarray con ditions. We included transcriptome data from studies in mouse models of physiological LVH induced by swim ming exercise, cardiac specific activation of Akt, and cardiac specific activation of PI3K. This is the first study in cardiac hypertrophy at this Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries scale and it may provide a basis for further understanding of both physiological and pathological LVH phenotypes. Results Generation of Microarray co expression Networks Gene expression profiles in heart tissue were investi gated under normal conditions, during physiological stress, and in two gene modified models of physiological LVH involving cardiac activation of the PI3K Akt pathway. To estimate the specificity of the hypertrophic gene signature, an additional dataset moni toring gene expression in healthy mouse organs was also used.

Four mouse microarray datasets totaling 141 arrays were obtained from ArrayExpress for further analysis. Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries The Akt dataset was generated using a tetra cycline regulated transgenic system Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries with the capacity to conditionally switch a constitutively active form of the Akt1 protein kinase on or off in the adult Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries heart. This dataset consisted of normal heart tissue, short term, activated Akt1, and switched off Akt1. The PI3K dataset consisted of wild type hearts and hearts with expression of dominant negative PI3K or constitutively active PI3K. The Swimming dataset, containing 30 arrays, monitored expression in mouse hearts under normal conditions, swimming, and swimming fol lowed by 1 week of rest.

Finally, the Normal dataset monitored transcript expression in healthy mouse tissues including bladder, bone, spleen, stomach, and the heart. After pre processing, pair wise gene expression similarities were measured using the Pearson Correlation Coefficient. Co expression networks GSK-3 were undirected and, at PCC 0. 70, obeyed a power law, suggesting a scale free architecture dominated by a number of highly connected hub genes. The PCC threshold was set to 0. 70 on the basis of the following evidence, gene correlation profiles with PCC over 0. 60 were demonstrated to be more biologi cally relevant and similar studies of human gene co expression landscape have employed comparable threshold criteria. Additionally, below this cut off all networks were excessively large, suggesting a presence of false positive edges.

However, a more stringent PCC threshold was avoided, as further filtering has been implemented by selecting gene pairs that were correlated across all three datasets. Finally, the data driven cut off approach was not deemed appropriate as it is intended primarily for comparison meanwhile of multiple networks derived from differential phenotypes. At PCC 0. 70 it was noted that an increase of this cut off value removed weakly connected links from all networks while maintaining a constant number of genes. Average betweenness centrality of all networks increased with PCC values, suggesting that applying a threshold