B lactamase production was identified using nitrocefin discs, according to the manufacturers instructions (Cefinase discs. Becton Dickinson, Cockeysville, Md, USA. Isolation of genomic DNA DNA was isolated from bacterial suspensions using the DNA express kit (Lytech Ltd, Moscow, Russia according ref 3 to the instructions from the manufacturer. Molecular epidemiological typing For molecular epidemiological typing, NG MAST was performed on gonococcal isolates from Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries 2011 Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries (n _ 421 and 2012 (n _ 100 as previously described. NG MAST allele numbers of the more variable segments of porB and tbpB, and sequence types (STs were assigned using the NG MAST websiteStatistical analysis Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistica software version 9. 0 PL (StatSoft Corporation, Cracow, Poland.
Z test for comparison of proportions was used. The level of significance was set at P 0. 05. Results Patient characteristics N. gonorrhoeae isolates (one isolate per patient from 1200 patients (959 males and 241 females 407 patients (324 males and 83 females 423 patients (295 males and 128 Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries females and 106 (65 males and 41 females in 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively, were examined. The mean ages of the males (n _ 1643 were 26. 8 years (median age 25 years. range 15 to 64 years and the mean ages of the females (n _ 493 were 25. 3 years (median age 24 years. range 16 to 76 years. The age distribution was relatively similar during the four years investigated. Briefly, in 2012 the proportion of isolates with in vitro resistance was 25. 5%, 17. 0%, 11. 3%, 0.
9%, and 0% for ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, penicillin G, spectinomycin, and ceftriaxone, respectively. During Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries 2009 2012, the proportions of N. gonorrhoeae isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin, penicillin G, azithromycin and spectinomycin ranged from 25. 5% to 44. 4%, 9. 6% to 13. 2%, 2. 3% to 17. 0% and 0. 9% to 11. 6%, respectively. The overall number of B lactamase producing N. gonorrhoeae isolates was 6 (0. 3%. In general, the resistance level to penicillin G was stable, the resistance level to ciprofloxacin was declining, however, the level of resistance to azithromycin was increasing significantly (P 0. 05 (Table 1. However, the highest MIC of azithromycin detected was 8 mg L and no isolates with high level resistance to azithromycin (MIC 256 mg L have yet been found in Russia.
Worryingly, gonococcal isolates with low level resistance to spectinomycin were identified in all the surveyed Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries years. Nevertheless, no isolates with high level resistance to spectinomycin (MIC 1024 mg L have yet been identified in Russia and the spectinomycin MICs of the identified isolates only ranged from 128 to 256 mg L. All isolates from 2009 to 2012 were susceptible to ceftriaxone
. Interestingly, http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Romidepsin-FK228.html the prevalence of the isolates resistant to ceftriaxone according to the EUCAST breakpoint decreased significantly (P 0. 05 i. e. 48 (4. 0% 8 (2. 0% 2 (0.