After covarying for other key cognitive parameters, although the

After covarying for other key cognitive parameters, although the absolute magnitude of the deficit was reduced, significant impairment remained. These results indicate that individuals with MCI, and to a greater extent dementia, experience generalized difficulties with PM. It is suggested that, while other cognitive deficits contribute to these difficulties, there is something unique to prospective remembering that may be additionally disrupted in these groups. (JINS, Raf inhibitor 2010, 16, 318-325.)”
“Two new phenolic acids, 1, 5-O-dicaffeoyl-3-O-(4-maloyl)-quinic acid (1) and 3, 5-di-O-caffeoyl-1-O-(2-O-caffeoyl-4-maloyl)-quinic

acid (2), were isolated from cultured cells of Saussurea involucrata. Their structures were elucidated using 2D NMR spectroscopy and MS. Further in vitro bioactive investigations demonstrated that 3, 5-di-O-caffeoyl-1-O-(2-O-caffeoyl-4-maloyl)-quinic acid (2) had significant scavenging

activities against radicals 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 20-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS). (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Phytochemical Society of Europe.”
“Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) is an acute phase protein with multiple functions that has garnered a great deal of interest over the last decade. However, its precise role in the pathophysiology of the central nervous system (CNS) remains to be outlined. Emerging evidence indicates that LCN2 is synthesized and secreted as an inducible factor from activated microglia, reactive astrocytes, neurons, and endothelial cells in response to inflammatory, infectious, or injurious insults. More recently, it has been recognized as a modulatory factor for diverse cellular phenotypes in the CNS, such as cell death, survival, morphology, Nutlin-3 mouse migration, invasion, differentiation,

and functional polarization. LCN2 induces chemokine production in the CNS in response to inflammatory challenges, and actively participates in the innate immune response, cellular influx of iron, and regulation of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. LCN2 also modulates several biobehavioral responses including pain hypersensitivity, cognitive functions, emotional behaviors, depression, neuronal excitability, and anxiety. This review covers recent advances in our knowledge regarding functional roles of LCN2 in the CNS, and discusses how LCN2 acts as an autocrine mediator of astrocytosis, a chemokine inducer, and a modulator of various cellular phenotypes in the CNS. We finally explore the possibilities and challenges of employing LCN2 as a signature of several CNS anomalies. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Groundwater contamination of arsenic is the major cause of a serious health hazard in Bangladesh. No specific treatment is yet available to manage the large number of individuals exposed to arsenic.

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