Axonal short-pause rates were defined as the number of short-paus

Axonal short-pause rates were defined as the number of short-pause events per 100 μm length of the axon per 30 min of time-lapse imaging. Axonal appearance rates were defined as the number of mitochondria that appeared within 30 min and existed for at least the next 30 min. Axonal disappearance rates were defined as the number of mitochondria that were observed at 0 min and disappeared

between the next 30 and 60 min. The intracellular Ca2+ changes induced by electrical stimulation were estimated as ΔF/F0 [=(F−F0)/F0], where F was the G-CaMP6 fluorescence intensity CHIR-99021 molecular weight at a given time point and F0 was the fluorescence signal at resting state measured from 10 frames before stimulation. The ΔF/F0 of 10 consecutive images were averaged. To combine separate sets of measurements, time-averaged ΔF/F0 during electrical stimulation were normalised by the maximum value in the same axonal region (normalised time-averaged ΔF/F0). Data are presented as means ± SE. Statistical significance was determined by performing Selleck Akt inhibitor an unpaired t-test for comparing two samples, Z-test for examining the distribution bias of short-pause position preference and Pearson’s chi-square test for assessing a difference between paired observations on two variables. All statistical analysis was performed using Origin (Light Stone, Tokyo, Japan). Quantitative

imaging analyses of mitochondrial dynamics and its relation to presynaptic sites need reliable

fluorescence-based markers of these two structures. To visualise axonal mitochondria in cultured hippocampal neurons, we expressed the C-terminal transmembrane region of mitochondrial outer membrane protein of 25 kDa tagged with mCherry (mCherry-OMP; Nemoto & De Camilli, 1999; Song et al., 2009). Neurons expressing mCherry-OMP were stained by anti-cytochrome c, a mitochondrial marker, and their co-localisation was confirmed (Fig. 2A). An average length of axonal mCherry-OMP was 1.7 ± 0.1 μm at 19–21 DIV (eight cells, n = 127), which was consistent with the mitochondrial length of rat pyramidal neurons (Shepherd & Harris, 1998). We concluded that mCherry-OMP can be used for a mitochondrial Ureohydrolase marker in cultured hippocampal neurons. To visualise the positions of presynaptic structures, VAMP2, an abundant SV protein (Takamori et al., 2006), tagged with EGFP (EGFP-VAMP2) was expressed in cultured hippocampal neurons. EGFP-VAMP2 puncta showed reasonable co-localisation with functional presynaptic sites revealed by the uptake of styryl dye FM1-43 (Fig. 2B). The fluorescence intensities of EGFP-VAMP2 puncta and the extent of FM1-43 uptake correlated well [12–13 DIV (2 weeks), n = 118 puncta from three cells, r = 0.94; 19–23 DIV (3 weeks), n = 140 puncta from three cells, r = 0.85; Fig. 2C].

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