g., Niyogi et al. 1997; Serôdio et al. 2012) or all the leaves of an rosette of Arabidopsis. There are several commercial imaging instruments on the market. It is a technique whose
development has kept pace with improvements in LED technology. For reliable imaging measurements, it is critical that the whole sample area be illuminated homogeneously. Several introductory texts and reviews have been published on SC79 fluorescence imaging (e.g., Buschmann et al. 2001; Oxborough 2004; Lenk et al. 2007; Scholes and Rolfe 2009). Since it was not possible to image F O′ with the imaging systems available in the late 1990s, Oxborough and Baker (1997) derived an equation to estimate it: $$ F_\textO’ =\, \fracF_\textO \fracF_\textV F_\textM + \fracF_\textO F_\textM ‘. $$ This equation allows the Autophagy inhibitor calculation of the parameters qP [=(F M′ − F S)/(F M′ − F O′)] and F V′/F M′. The challenge using fluorescence imaging is to process all the data collected in a scientifically meaningful way. Meyer and Genty (1998) analyzed their data making frequency distributions of parameters of interest; we recommend that this method is considered
for future experiments. Imaging can be used, e.g., to assess the dynamics and heterogeneous behavior of stomatal opening/closure over a leaf, a phenomenon also called stomatal patchiness. A palette of false colors is used to cover the range of fluorescence Apoptosis inhibitor intensities (normalized between 0 and 1), assigning a color to each pixel of the image (Gorbe and Calatayud 2012). Based on the image, different areas of the leaf can be chosen, the associated fluorescence data averaged, fluorescence parameters can be calculated, and subsequently, the photosynthetic properties of the chosen area can be studied. Using fluorescence imaging, it is easy to detect photosynthetic heterogeneities
in a leaf (Meyer and Genty 1998) and to follow how any stress affects the leaf in spatial terms. In a popular early experiment, the imaging technique was used to show the gradual infiltration of PSII inhibiting herbicides in the leaf Palbociclib chemical structure (e.g., Daley et al. 1989; Lichtenthaler et al. 1997; Chaerle et al. 2003) or the effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-inducing herbicides (e.g., Hideg and Schreiber 2007). Spatial heterogeneities that have been studied using fluorescence imaging include heterogeneities occurring during the following processes: induction of photosynthesis (Genty and Meyer 1995; Daley et al. 1989), the onset of senescence (Wingler et al. 2004), chilling (Hogewoning and Harbinson 2007), the response to drought (Woo et al. 2008), nutrient stress (Landi et al. 2013), ozone stress (Gielen et al. 2006; Guidi et al. 2007), wounding (Quilliam et al. 2006), and during infection with viruses (Balachandran et al.