g., Rabinowitch and Govindjee 1969, available free on the internet). Further, in mature leaves, part of the PQ can be in storage and, thus, not available for reduction. Table 3 Changes in redox state of plastoquinone in chloroplasts Time (min) Illumination Mg oxidized PQ Microequivalent
reductant# 0 Dark 0.042 0.0419 15 Light (2000fc) 0.0412 15 Dark 0.0327 15 Light (600fc)* 0.011 0.0676 Increased reductant 0.031 0.026 Redox changes in light (at 600 fc) gave further support to a role of plastoquinone in photosynthesis. The absence of effect at 2000 fc was not explained at that time. Extraction was with acidified isooctane as described buy Y-27632 in Crane et al. (1960); fc Foot candles; *Unpublished experiment of December 30, 1959; #Ferric chloride-dipyridyl was used to titrate total reductants in the lipid extract Friend and Redfearn (1963) showed that DCMU (3-(3,4-dichloro-phenyl)-1,1
dimethyl urea) and o-phenanthroline inhibited the reduction of PQ by Photosystem II (PS II) and that ammonia, which uncouples photophosphorylation, increases oxidation of PQ. Further, Friend and Redfearn (1963) proposed two functional sites for PQ, consistent with the conclusions of PHA-848125 solubility dmso Trebst (1963) and Stiehl and Witt (1969; also see Witt 1971), where the primary site was for the transfer of electrons from PS II to PS I, and a secondary site was on PS I. Trebst (1963) showed that partial extraction of PQ inhibited ferricyanide reduction (PS II) which was restored by PQ, whereas NADP reduction Bortezomib solubility dmso (PS I) was inhibited only after more complete extraction, which was restored by PQ addition. In a study of the specificity of the restoration
by quinones, Trebst and Eck (1963) found that restoration of NADP reduction was specific for 2,3 di-methyl benzoquinone(s), with an isoprenoid side chain, whereas ferricyanide reduction was restored by many di- and tri-methyl o-benzoquinones (Trebst and Eck 1963). We note that the heptane extraction, used in these Dynein studies to remove PQs, did not damage the membranes since photophosphorylation, which needs intact membranes, was restored by PQ after extraction of lyophilized chloroplasts (Krogmann 1961). More convincing analysis of a role for PQ in photosynthesis came from spectrophotometric measurement of light effects in intact cells or chloroplasts. In a study of photoinduced UV spectral changes in the blue green alga (a cyanobacterium) Anacystis, Amesz (1964) obtained spectral changes consistent with its role as an electron carrier between PS II and PS I. A similar conclusion was reached later by Stiehl and Witt (1969) who used spinach chloroplasts and the green alga Chlorella. These results agree with the extraction–restoration work, discussed above.