“It has been suggested that inflammation is important in the aetiology of hypertension and that this may be most relevant among obese persons. To study this, we examined the independent relationships between obesity, inflammation-related proteins (interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen) and risk for hypertension
in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Hypertension status, defined as a blood pressure >= 140/90mmHg or a history of hypertension and use of blood pressure medications, was determined at baseline and two subsequent exams over 5 years. Among 3543 non-hypertensives at baseline, 714 individuals developed incident hypertension by Exam 3. Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine the relationship between baseline levels of IL-6, CRP and fibrinogen and future risk of hypertension. One s.d. difference in baseline concentration Copanlisib inhibitor of IL-6, CRP or fibrinogen was associated with 20-40% greater risk of incident hypertension. This risk was attenuated after accounting for other hypertension risk factors (hazard ratio (HR) IL-6: 1.13 (95% CI: 1.04-1.23); CRP: 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02-1.21); fibrinogen 1.0 (95% CI: 0.92-1.08)). Conversely, obesity was an independent risk factor for hypertension
risk, minimally impacted by other covariates, including IL-6 and CRP (HR 1.72 (95% CI: 1.36-2.16)). IL-6 and CRP did not modify the relationship between obesity
and hypertension, though an adjusted twofold greater risk was observed for obese individuals with a CRP > 3mgl(-1) compared with CRP < 1mgl(-1). The relationship between inflammation-related selleck products proteins and hypertension risk was predominantly explained by other hypertension risk factors. JNK-IN-8 cell line Obesity, independent of inflammation, remained a potent risk factor for future hypertension. Journal of Human Hypertension (2011) 25, 73-79; doi:10.1038/jhh.2010.91; published online 14 October 2010″
“Previous work indicated that changes in Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM) signaling pathway are involved in the control of proliferation and survival of immortalized lymphocytes from Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. We examined the regulation of cellular CaM levels in AD lymphoblasts. An elevated CaM content in AD cells was found when compared with control cells from age-matched individuals. We did not find significant differences in the expression of the three genes that encode CaM: CALM1, 2, 3, by real time RT-PCR. However, we observed that the half-life of CaM was higher in lymphoblasts from AD than in control cells, suggesting that degradation of CaM is impaired in AD lymphoblasts. The rate of CaM degradation was found to be dependent on cellular Ca2+ and ROS levels. CaM degradation occurs mainly via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Increased levels of CaM were associated with overactivation of PI3K/Akt and CaMKII.