No transplantation-specific related interaction is documented, but in the context of impaired graft function, the use of sulphonylureas may be limited. In addition, the weight gain associated with these agents may exacerbate the weight gain often observed post-transplantation and worsen other metabolic risk profiles. Currently available thiazolidinediones, rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, Rapamycin cell line are selective agonists of the peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ). They act as prandial glucose regulators and improve insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and the
liver. They are efficacious and associated with a 0.5–1.4% reduction in HbA1c,3 although the long-term glycaemic durability may be superior with these agents.19 Pioglitazone has been shown to reduce the occurrence of some cardiovascular outcomes in patients with an eGFR less than 60 mL/min but at the risk of a greater decline in renal function.20 Rosiglitazone has been safely used post kidney transplantation and demonstrated good short-term efficacy,21 one of only two antiglycaemic medications with any evidence base post-transplantation (neither in the context of a randomized controlled trial). A previously released PPARγ agonist troglitazone was withdrawn because of several cases of fatal hepatotoxicity, but no similar problems have
been associated with either rosiglitazone or pioglitazone. Fluid retention (causing weight gain and reduced haematocrit), higher fracture rates
of distal extremities in women and some gastrointestinal XAV-939 side effects have all been observed with both agents. Caution is advised with PPARγ agonist use in patients with an eGFR less than 30 mL/min, although problems with fluid retention would be much more likely in the context of advancing chronic kidney disease. Of greatest concern, recent meta-analyses have shown that although pioglitazone is associated with a reduction in the incidence of death, myocardial infarct Ixazomib order and stroke,22 similar analysis of rosiglitazone suggests an increased risk of myocardial infarcts and heart failure.23,24 This is despite both agents also showing mild benefits on other cardiovascular risk profiles such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. It should be highlighted that both rosiglitazone and pioglitazone are associated with fluid retention and congestive cardiac failure. Lago et al.25 demonstrated a class effect of thiazolidinediones on the occurrence of congestive cardiac failure, but not on cardiovascular death, in a meta-analysis of seven randomized, double-blind trials. Longer follow-up of such study patients is required to clarify the overall cardiovascular risk for patients on thiazolidinediones. The current advice regarding thiazolidinediones from regulatory authorities is specifically for rosiglitazone.