The resulting PCR products were purified and sub-cloned into pFLAG-CTC vector using XhoI and BglII. To generate pTir-bla, primers XH1 and XH2 were used to PCR amplify RG-7388 nmr the tir open reading frame (without the stop codon) using EPEC genomic DNA as template. The resulting PCR product was treated with AseI and EcoRI and cloned into NdeI/EcoRI treated
pCX341 (generously provided by I. Rosenshine)  to create pTir-bla. The resulting plasmid construct was electroporated into EPEC and transformants were selected using tetracycline. buy BAY 63-2521 Expression of Tir-TEM1 was verified by immunoblotting using anti-TEM1 antibodies (QED Biosciences). Construction of mutants in EPEC E2348/69 A chromosomal deletion of Adavosertib ic50 escU was generated using allelic exchange . Chromosomal DNA regions flanking the escU open reading frame were amplified from EPEC genomic DNA by PCR using primer pairs JT1/JT2 and JT3/JT4. The resulting 0.9 kb and 1.2 kb products were treated with NheI and then combined in a 1:1 ratio followed by the addition of T4 DNA ligase. After an overnight incubation at 16°C, an aliquot of the ligation reaction was then added to a PCR with primers JT1 and JT4 which generated a 2.1 kb product. The product was digested with
SacI and cloned into pRE112 using E. coli DH5αλpir as a cloning host. The resulting plasmid PΔescU was verified using primers JT1 and JT4 by sequencing. PΔescU was then transformed into the conjugative strain SM10λpir which was then mated with EPEC E2348/69. EPEC integrants harbouring PΔescU on the chromosome were selected by plating
onto solid media supplemented with streptomycin and chloramphenicol. The resulting colonies were then plated onto sucrose media (1% [w/v] tryptone, 0.5% [w/v] yeast extract, 5% [w/v] sucrose and 1.5% [w/v] agar) and incubated overnight at 30°C. The resulting colonies were screened for sensitivity to chloramphenicol, followed by a PCR using primers JT1 Acesulfame Potassium and JT7 to verify deletion of the escU from the chromosome. Cis-complementation mutants were generated using the same allelic exchange approach using primers NT278 and NT279 for escU(N262A) and primers NT281 and NT282 for escU(P263A) genetic constructs. To generate the ΔescNΔescU and ΔsepDΔescU double mutants, SM10λpir/PΔescU was conjugated with ΔescN , ΔsepD  as described above. For genetic trans-complementation studies, the appropriate plasmids were transformed into electrocompetent strains followed by antibiotic selection. In vitro secretion assay Secretion assays were performed as previously described  with some minor modifications. To aid in the precipitation of proteins from secreted protein fractions, bovine serum albumin (100 ng) was added as a carrier protein during the precipitation step.