“This study investigates the effects of the construction a

“This study investigates the effects of the construction and operation of a large Danish offshore wind

farm on harbor MG-132 nmr and gray seal haul-out behavior within a nearby (4 km) seal sanctuary. Time-lapse photography, visual monitoring, and aerial surveys were used to monitor the number of seals on land in daylight hours. Seals were monitored during two preconstruction periods (19 June–31 August 2001 and April–August 2002), a construction period of the wind farm (August 2002–December 2003), and a period of operation of the wind farm (December 2003–December 2004). Monthly aerial surveys were conducted to estimate the proportion of seals in the sanctuary relative to neighboring haul-out sites. From preconstruction to construction and through the first year of operation the number of harbor seals in the sanctuary increased at the same rate as the number of seals at the neighboring haul-out sites. No long-term effects on haul-out behavior were found due PKC412 solubility dmso to construction and operation of the wind farm. However, a significant short-term decrease was seen in the number of seals present on land during sheet pile driving in or near the wind farm. Acoustic deterrents were utilized simultaneously to avoid hearing damage. “
“Unlike other mammals, odontocetes and mysticetes have highly derived craniofacial bones. A growth process referred to as “telescoping” is partly responsible for this morphology. Here, we explore how changes in facial morphology during fetal

growth relate to differences in telescoping between the adult odontocete Stenella attenuata and the mysticete Balaena mysticetus. We conclude that in both Stenella and Balaena head size increases allometrically. Similarly, odontocete nasal length and mysticete mouth size have strong positive allometry compared to total body length. However, the differences between odontocetes and mysticetes in telescoping are not directly associated with their fetal growth patterns.

Our results suggest that cranial changes related medchemexpress to echolocation and feeding between odontocetes and mysticetes, respectively, begin during ontogeny before telescoping is initiated. “
“Eastern Pacific gray whales were monitored off Ensenada, Mexico, during the southbound migration. The objectives were to determine southbound migration timing and width of the migration corridor during three seasons (2003–2006). Migration timing was determined by fitting a generalized additive model to the shore counts for each season and estimating the 10, 50, and 90 percentiles of the fitted curves. To estimate abundance from shore-based counts, a probability density function for the shore based distances was estimated by a product of a gamma distribution fit to the boat survey distance data for 2006/2007 and a half-normal detection function using combined data of the three seasons. The parameters of the gamma distribution were corrected to account for less boat survey effort carried out 20–40 km than 0–20 km from shore.

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