Three genes or operons, namely znuA, znuCB and ykgM were further

Three genes or operons, namely znuA, znuCB and ykgM were further identified as direct Zur targets. Subsequent determination of transcription start sites, predicted -10/-35 elements, and Zur binding sites enabled the mapping of Zur-DNA interactions for these three genes. This study confirmed that Y. pestis Zur employed a conserved regulatory mechanism observed in γ-Proteobacteria. Methods Bacterial strains The wild-type (WT) Y. pestis biovar Microtus see more strain 201 is avirulent to humans but highly lethal to mice [12]. It was grown in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth or chemically

defined TMH medium [13] at 26 or 37°C. E. coli strains BL21 (DE3) was grown in LB broth at 37°C. Antibiotics were added at the following concentrations when required: 100 μg/ml for ampicillin, and 50 μg/ml for kanamycin. Construction of the zur buy NVP-BGJ398 mutant Cisplatin cell line The Y. pestis zur mutant strain (Δzur) was generated by using the one-step inactivation method based on the lambda phage recombination system, as previously described by Datsenko and Wanner [14]. Briefly, the helper plasmid pKD46 was first transformed into Y. pestis 201. The zur::kana mutagenic cassette was PCR

amplified from plasmid pRS551 [15] with the primers zur-k-F and zur-k-R and transformed into strain 201/pKD46 (all the primers used in this study were listed in Additional file 1). Mutants were selected by plating electroporated cells on agar plates containing kanamycin. Colonies of resistant transformants were subsequently selected. Chromosomal integration of the mutagenic cassette was confirmed by PCR and Sinomenine sequencing using oligonucleotides external to the integrated cassette (data not shown). The mutants were incubated overnight at 37°C and then tested for the loss of the temperature-sensitive plasmid pKD46 by looking for ampicillin sensitivity. The elimination of the helper plasmid was verified by PCR (data not shown). Bacterial growth and RNA isolation A chemically defined TMH medium [13] was used to cultivate strain 201. Both WT and Δzur were pre-cultivated at

26°C to the middle exponential growth phase (OD620 about 1.0) in TMH medium. The cell cultures were then diluted 1:20 in fresh TMH medium and grown at 26°C until an OD620 of about 1.0. Finally, 5 mM ZnCl2 was added into each cell culture to ensure zinc rich conditions. Growth was continued for 30 min at 26°C before harvested for total RNA isolation. This kind of treatment with Zn had no toxic effect on both WT and Δzur, according to the colony counting assay (Additional file 1). Immediately before being harvested, bacterial cultures were mixed with two fold of RNAprotect Bacteria Reagent (Qiagen) to minimize RNA degradation. Total cellular RNA was isolated using the MasterPure™ RNA Purification kits (Epicenter). RNA quality was monitored by agarose gel electrophoresis and RNA quantity was measured by spectrophotometer.

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