After a series of experimentations, we found that MBF of E. coli K12 strain has certain proteins which are responsible for reducing Au cations into Au NPs. A distinct pink colour was observed due to the phenomenon of surface plasmon resonance (SPR)  (Figure 1a) in the reaction mixture containing MBF of the bacterial cell after 24 h. No colour formation was present in the control sample consisting PF-01367338 mouse of soluble fraction (Figure
1b) and gold ion solution without inoculum (Figure 1c). The same is shown in the inset of Figure 1. UV–vis spectra (Figure 1) of aqueous reaction mixtures showed no increase in absorbance after 24 h, suggesting formation of stable nanoparticles in the reaction mixture. It should be noted that the SPR peak broadening and associated decreased intensity is because of the interaction between the membrane fraction and Au NPs in the reaction mixture.  This can be understood by the fact that when these Au NPs are in the vicinity of bacterial cells, membrane fraction or
lipopolysaccharides, they tend to adhere to these substrates, thereby reducing NCT-501 in vitro the peak intensity (adding scattering background) as compared to otherwise observed SPR of Au NPs alone. This also suggests that in the case of biogenic synthesis of nanoparticles, the presence and intensity of SPR should not be the sole criterion for concentration assessment. Figure 1 UV–vis spectra observed after 24 h. (a) SPR due to Au NP produced by MBF; (b) no SPR absorbance in soluble fraction; (c) no SPR absorbance in gold ion solution without Clomifene inoculum. The inset figure corroborating the same in the above-mentioned samples, respectively. It is important to note that no colour change was observed in control solutions consisting of cell soluble fraction and gold cation solution (without inoculum), suggesting the absence of nanoparticle formation.
This was further verified when these samples were examined by AFM as shown in Figure 2. Figure 2 AFM imaging of biogenic Au nanospheres after 24 h by membrane-bound fraction of cells (a-d). The AFM probe detected discrete circular nanoparticles (Figure 2a,b) from the MBF reaction mixture, while no such formation was observed in the soluble fraction or gold cation solution without inoculum (Figure 2c,d). The 2D selleck kinase inhibitor profile obtained by AFM suggested strong shape control (circular) with a size around 50 nm. This strong shape control indicated that apart from reducing proteins present in the MBF, certain organic groups must be acting as stabilizing agent. To investigate the same, the membrane-bound reaction mixture was subjected to FT-IR analysis to analyse the chemical groups responsible for nanoparticle synthesis. FT-IR spectra (Figure 3a) showed distinct absorption in the region 1,800 to 1,600 cm−1 responsible for amide linkages in the reaction mixture.