Microarray analysis revealed that there was little impact on the transcriptome of inoculated leaves compared with controls,
with only 0.22% of genes that were differentially regulated. However, several interesting genes, including a NAC domain–containing protein, an elicitor-responsive protein, involved in ubiquitination, and a glycosyl transferase gene, two transcription factors (TFs) and two unknown genes were up-regulated more than five-fold. Genes for metabolic and cellular components, TFs and defence signalling, such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade, were also significantly induced after Xoo infection. This study provides a genome-wide view buy Small molecule library of the initial reaction of rice (Y73) to Xoo infection and elucidates some of the genes that may play an important role in disease resistance. “
“A sensitive antiserum is needed for
the detection of Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), one of the most important latent viruses that infect fruit trees. We have studied many properties of coat protein, such as the antigenic index, α-helix, β-sheet, β-turn, coil structure, hydrophilicity, see more surface probability and flexibility and analysis with several software algorithms. Based on the rules for locating the antigenic epitopes in the regions including β-turns and coil structures with the high hydrophilicity and surface probability, the predicted epitopes were located in the region of amino acid positions 4–18, 100–114, 400–414, respectively. Two linear synthetic peptides (CRGYEEGSRPNQRVLP and CTGGKIGPKPVLSIRK) were prepared and conjugated with carrier protein. The antisera, designated 1468 and 1469, were obtained by immunizing
rabbits. The antibody produced a strong immuno-reaction with the expression product of the ASPV coat protein gene in Escherichia coli. By testing ten apple samples, ASPV could be detected by Protein A Sandwich ELISA using antiserum 1468, but only some positive samples could be detected with antiserum 1469. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the preparation of antiserum to a pome fruit 上海皓元 virus using the antigenic epitopes method. “
“Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) and Apple mosaic virus are economically important viruses infecting fruit tree species worldwide. To evaluate the occurrence of these pome fruit viruses in Latvia, a large-scale survey was carried out in 2007. Collected samples were tested for infection by DAS ELISA and multiplex RT-PCR. The accuracy of the detection of the viruses in multiplex RT-PCR was confirmed by sequencing amplified PCR fragments. The results showed a wide occurrence of viruses in apple and pear commercial orchards established from non-tested planting material.