Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabacum as plasmid DNA coated on microprojectiles (gold particles). The large number of initial infection sites (necrotic local lesions) observed on inoculated ‘A6′ leaves see more and the high percentage of Nicotiana
plants which were infected systemically with PVA following inoculation with HandyGun were not particularly sensitive to variation in the parameters tested (helium pressure and the amounts of plasmid DNA and gold particles). Data showed that HandyGun is a robust and reliable tool for obtaining high infection rates in plants reproducibly. It is easy and inexpensive to use and can be constructed from parts commonly available. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“This study investigated behavioural and electro-cortical reorganizations accompanying intentional switching between two distinct bimanual coordination
DAPT molecular weight tapping modes (In-phase and Anti-phase) that differ in stability when produced at the same movement rate. We expected that switching to a less stable tapping mode (In-to-Anti switching) would lead to larger behavioural perturbations and require supplementary neural resources than switching to a more stable tapping mode (Anti-to-In switching). Behavioural results confirmed that the In-to-Anti switching lasted longer than the Anti-to-In switching. A general increase in attention-related neural activity was found at the moment of switching for both conditions. Additionally, two condition-dependent EEG reorganizations were observed. First, a specific increase in cortico-cortical coherence appeared exclusively during the In-to-Anti switching. This result may reflect a strengthening C1GALT1 in inter-regional communication in order to engage in the subsequent, less stable, tapping mode. Second, a decrease in motor-related
neural activity (increased beta spectral power) was found for the Anti-to-In switching only. The latter effect may reflect the interruption of the previous, less stable, tapping mode. Given that previous results on spontaneous Anti-to-In switching revealing an inverse pattern of EEG reorganization (decreased beta spectral power), present findings give new insight on the stability-dependent neural correlates of intentional motor switching. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Toggenburg Orbivirus (TOV) has been detected recently in healthy goats in Switzerland. The virus is related closely to bluetongue virus (BTV) and is considered tentatively as a 25th serotype of BTV. Upon detection of additional TOV-positive goats in Switzerland, Germany, and Italy, these TOV isolates were characterized genetically by partial sequencing of the viral genome segment 2 which encodes VP2, the major outer capsid protein of orbiviruses. A TOV-specific RT-qPCR was developed, targeting conserved areas within segment 2.