reuteri, affects on streptococcus mutants, colonization of the teeth surface by lactobacilli Less carries after the ingestion of living or oral vaccination with heat-killed lactobacilli Enhanced nutrient value Chr. Hansen (Horsholm, Denmark) Snow Brand Milk Products Co., Ltd (Tokyo, Japan) Institut Rosell (Montreal, Canada) Rhodia, Inc. (Madison, WI) Nebraska Cultures, learn more Inc. (Lincoln, NE) L. casei DN014001 (Immunitas) Danone Le Plessis- Robinson (Paris, France) Urex Biotech Inc. (London, Ontario, Canada) L. johnsonii La1 (same as Lj1) Nestlé (Lausanne, Switzerland) Probi AB (Lund, Sweden) L. reuteri SD2112
(same as MM2) Valio Dairy (Helsinki, Finland) Essum AB (Umeå, Sweden) University College (Cork, Ireland) Morinaga Milk Industry Co., Ltd (Zama-City, Japan) L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2038 Meiji Milk Products (Tokyo, Japan) Lacteol Laboratory (Houdan, France) Arla Dairy (Stockholm, Sweden) Biocodex Inc. (Seattle, WA) New Zealand Dairy Board The intestinal microbial community is a complex ecosystem, and introducing new organisms into this highly competitive environment is difficult. Thus, organisms that can produce a product that inhibits the growth of existing organisms have a characteristic advantage. The ability of probiotics to establish in the GI
tract is enhanced Osimertinib price by their ability to eliminate competitors. Some antimicrobials with producer organisms are enlisted in Table 3. In different studies on humans and animals, beneficial microorganisms are used to improve the colonization resistance on body surfaces, such as GI, the urogenital, and the respiratory tract. Bifidobacteria produce acetic and lactic acids in a molar ratio of 3 : 2 (Desjardins
& Roy, 1990). Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei produce lactic acid as the main end product of fermentation. In addition to lactic and acetic acids, probiotic organisms produce other acids, such as hippuric and citric acid. Lactic acid bacteria also produce hydrogen peroxide, diacetyl, and bacteriocin as antimicrobial substances. These inhibitory substances create antagonistic environments for foodborne pathogens and spoilage organisms. Yoghurt bacteria are reported to produce bacteriocin against probiotic bacteria and vice versa (Dave & Shah, 1997). Wide-spectrum antibiotic Acidolin, Acidophilin, Cytidine deaminase Lactocidin, Lactocin B L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus L. sake L45, L. sake Lb706 Nisin, Lactostrepsin, Lactocin, Lacticin Pediococcus pentosaceous, P. acidilactis Enterococcus faecium DPC1146 Goldin & Gorbach (1980) reported that the introduction of L. acidophilus into the diet lowers the incidence of chemically induced colon tumors in rats. Later, the same authors also suggested that diet and antibiotics can lower the generation of carcinogens in the colon and reduce chemically induced tumors (Goldin & Gorbach, 1984). These effects appear to be mediated through the intestinal microbial communities.